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Norms and Bodies: Exploring the Architectural Body

Norms and Bodies: Exploring the Architectural Body

Veerle Alkemade

Bodies and their surroundings are continuously changing and inseparably intertwined, making it impossible to explore the two independently. This means that our bodies do not simply end at our skin, unlike architectural notions such as the Modulor by Le Corbusier suggest. As professor Hélène Frichot puts it: “there is some sort of a thinking feeling body and there is an atmospheric sack of something that surrounds this body”.

Architecture can be regarded as a mediator between bodies and their surroundings and as a practice which strives to empower the bodies who interact with it. However, if we note that our bodies are dynamic and thus not so easily defined (if definable at all), how do we design?

Basing architectural designs on diagrams such as those made by Ernst Neufert, standardises and simplifies the complex relations that bodies and surroundings can have, and results in normative and repressive situations. How do we make sure that architecture doesn’t restrain or limit, but actually empowers bodies to act in their surroundings?

This research attempts to discover ways of designing which take into account the dynamic qualities of bodies and their surroundings, as an alternative to a normative design approach.

Unbias intervention policies on former detached-wards psychiatric hospitals

Unbias intervention policies on former detached-wards psychiatric hospitals

Andrea Fusaro

The great reformation of the mental healthcare system in Europe left behind a great number of architectural relics. Being built straddling between the XIX and the XX century in the outskirts of their cities, the detached-wards psychiatric hospitals got swallowed up by the urban fabric after post-World War 2 the economic growth, and are now enclosed cities in the cities. Of course the social, cultural and historical legacy of these places together with their out-of-scale size don’t help in any intervention scenario. Four decades were not enough to give a new life to the many complexes, and the few realized projects show that the current approach can’t be in any way effective nor sustainable.

Starting with an investigation on how these complexes could endure the many crises of their long lifespan, this project wants to determine from an unbiased perspective a new common practice of intervention for these forgotten realities. The outcomes will be used pioneeringly as a direct input to determine a new managerial, social and architectural program, that will then feed the design of an exemplary case study used as a showcase for this unexplored approach.

Stage Conflict

Stage Conflict

Xaveer

Stage Conflict aims to explore architecture related to multi-focal conflict between the individual and the collective. Instead of avoiding conflict, this thesis acknowledge its inevitable existence and seeks an architecture that both accommodates and provokes conflict.

In the first part of the essay, I theorize the beauty of conflict, its inherent dimension in social relations, its loss during last decades and its necessity for our coexistence in current society. Thereafter I discuss three main political stages in ancient Greece, the agora, the pnyx and the theater, which gives us an architectural and spatial perspective on the origins of democracy and on the productivity of conflict, both single-focal and multi-focal, both formal and informal, both ordered and disordered, and both total and fragmented.

The second part includes a comparison of a wide range of architectural projects that are characterized by the opposites of these characteristics. This comparison offers us an in depth insight how architecture can, by proliferation, stage conflict productively by acknowledging and celebrating a multiplicity of norms, values and differences among individuals.

A population in rehab

A population in rehab

Maurits van Ardenne

We are unable to anticipate a threat coming from within our developed societies. The ongoing technological progress is slowly paralysing our population.

The speed of modern-day life affects our mental health. Our brains are no longer able to cope with the overexposure we receive on a daily basis from our built environment. And since technological progress increases exponentially, the quantity of urban stressors will only intensify more. We will experience an increase of mental fatigue while being on our daily routine. Eventually, our impairment on mental health will affect our physical health by weakening our resistance.

The documentary ‘A Swedish Theory of Love’ shows how more and more people withdraw from society and isolate themselves. Depressions (about 30% of the population), burn-outs and non-involvement seem to become a new social norm. We clearly need to adapt our living environment to avoid further mental paralysis of our population.

The Frame: Abstraction, Prediction, Structure

The Frame: Abstraction, Prediction, Structure

Pu Hsien Henry Chan

The frame is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as a structure that surrounds a certain object — immediately referring to practical matters such as the window-frame, the door-frame, the picture-frame. It should also be considered that the frame is the subject of a certain action: framing. What does it mean to frame an object? When deploying the frame, it is implied that there is an understanding of the existence of the object within its perimeter: its conditions are framed.

However, the power of the frame might reside in its intrinsic connotations with structure — or giving structure to. The frame is not merely a way of confirming the conditions of an object, whether a past or a present condition. What if we suggest that the frame can also be utilised to incentivise, to initiate, to structure, and to create a predictive condition?

The research will focus on the conceptualisation of the frame, making enquiries primarily into philosophical and political frameworks. In the process, we might ask the question, how does the frame function beyond its rhetorical aspect? How does the frame have physicality that is relevant to the architectural and urban scale? How does the frame historically relate to the Fordist mode of production and its implications in the urban fabric? Who is the actor when deploying the frame? This research will lay the foundation for a design proposal in which the frame as a conceptual model will be utilised to (re)structure urban life and development.

Subversion of Expectation

Subversion of Expectation

Yara Valente

My fascination stems from the feeling that we live in a society where everything is rushed. And that we, in this constant rush, forget to stand still of a moment and appreciate what there is, what you see, or question what you are doing. I believe that by doing this we are missing out on opportunities. Because exactly by stepping out of this rush for a moment, you can better see it’s values. Or by standing still and questioning it you can find new possibilities, new perspectives.

I want to explore how I can make architecture that helps you to have this moment where you stand still, sharpen your vision and see these opportunities.
There are various ways of doing this: provocation; adding humor or irony; using something completely different than you are used to; playing and letting rules go; many more. But if I would have to categorise them, they would all fall under the – subversion of expectation-.

My research question therefore is:
How can architecture subvert your expectation?

A city of all

A city of all

Juul Heuvelmans

One of the biggest challenges cities are facing in the twenty-first century is migration. Every year there is an exponential growth in the number of migrants. In 2017, there were 257.71 million migrants of which 67.75 million were people of concern, these are people who were forced to leave their homes for any imaginable reason and did not move voluntarily in search for a better future. The fact that two third of these people are welcomed in poor countries is something wealthy countries should be ashamed off and becomes even worse when looking at the way these people are welcomed. Cities proved to be unprepared to absorb a large and diverse group of people and refugees are put away in camps built with military principles. As a result of this exclusion citizens in the city are unprepared as well. The question for future cities is how they can play part in absorbing such a diversity. How can we design for such numbers of different people? and how can these people start to understand these cities? Following these big questions the research question arising from my fascination is: What is the role of the porous city in the assimilation of refugees?

how to generate the personalized dwelling

how to generate the personalized dwelling

Yannick Macken

Streamlinedness and efficiency of the post-industrial construction industry have on one hand led to greater availability of mass-housing, but have also dictated repetition and standardization. Architects have made attempts, with varying success, to design housing that offers greater variety with similar means. Current trends towards on-demand solutions and developments in computation present an opportunity to introduce the computer to the design process of housing. I am curious whether with the use of parametric software, and with an understanding of rule-based design methods such as shape grammar, new housing solutions can be generated which offer ultimate personalization while respecting economic realities.

PROTOTYPE THE FUTURE

PROTOTYPE THE FUTURE

Dafne Sara Swank

– From cave to skyscraper to ??

My fascination lays in the future and everything related to it. Architecture has the potential to produce a meaningful and hyper inclusive network of relationships, that provokes and inspires to bring more than just a pretty picture. New processes that change the way we see and think about space and architecture are emerging. Of these, I am specifically fascinated by the process of form-finding, where we can merge structure, movement, time and human experience in order to generate future architecture.

Our Cities have developed in the last centuries into hybrids of various urban models. Many cities grew as a result of trade via water, hence why the majority of the 35 global mega-cities with over 10.000.000 inhabitants are located near a lake, river, ocean.

With rising water levels and the looming end-of-the-world predictions – from global warming to post peak oil energy crises and uncontrolled worldwide urbanization, architects should radically rethink the way we live. The lead to the question; How can we reconsider social and spatial prepossession, on sea or sky, for a self-sustaining water/sky-born community/city?

Respect nature

Respect nature

People seem to slowly take over the world of nature, while we can actually collaborate with it. With my research I would like to inspire people to live in homes where nature is preserved. Nature then functions just as an addition to the house. A tree house is in my view a recognisable example to experiment with, because it can evoke enthusiasm among many people. By using a recognisable example, I hope that more people start to think about new forms of living that are better and more profitable for nature.

Designing homes for people with autism

Designing homes for people with autism

Laura van Beek

For people with autism, special schools and surroundings are developed to enhance their progress and skills. However, housing design for this focus group remains underdeveloped. For people with autism, finding a proper home is difficult. Most houses are built for people without disabilities. Subsequently, minor alterations are made to adapt these houses for living with a mental disorder. This often results in linoleum floors and sterile-like surroundings; this is the most practical option and makes the house suitable for a lot of different (dis)abilities. Most of the time, they are coached by special tutors who can challenge them and stimulate their progress. This research will focus on designing a home environment where they can keep developing themselves. By trying to remove negative incentives and adding positive ones, an attempt will be made to create a home which is specifically focused on the autistic. A house which might enable to do with less coaching from people. A house which gives more independency to its resident. A house that challenges. A house that gives rest. A house which is a proper home for the autistic.

Architecture and Oil

Architecture and Oil

Sanne Beckers

For every four barrels we use, we only discover one (Rob Hopkins, 2009). Oil becomes more scarce, but architecture and oil are still connected in many ways. From transport to materials, architecture and the urban environment need to adapt for the coming post-oil world. One of the aspect we have to look to is the heritage of oil such as oil refineries, petrol stations and oil drilling rigs which will be left behind. How can we reuse these structures in the post-oil world. Maybe this sounds like something to worry about in the far future, however the oil-refinery of Dunkirk already closed down.

A structure which is we can find every on the world and is roughly similar are the oil tanks on the many refineries and other industries. That’s why I want to research the oil tanks. How to redesign oil tanks into dwellings in a post oil world? Via research by design I will look into the many aspects and hurdles I will bump into while redesigning the oil tanks.

Vernacular Architecture in Burkina Faso

Vernacular Architecture in Burkina Faso

Robyne Somé

West Afrika is quickly expanding its economy and population, leaving us with interesting architectural and urban challenges. Many of the sustainable problems we face in the West have been solved through traditional and simple architecture in countries such as Burkina Faso. Analyzing and learning their spatial practices is my ultimate fascination.

Of course, my fascination also lies in the fact that I am from Burkina Faso, making it easier to have an authentic, yet refreshing view on topics such as the extremely diverse and rich culture, the spatial planning and the politics in this post-colonial country.

Living organisms in architecture

Kamila Waszkowiak

In my work, I would like to go beyond the biomimicry and try to ask not only how to imitate nature, but rather how to incorporate it into architecture; to design responsive, low-energy and low-maintenance building by using plants, bacteria, mycelium or fish. I would like to explore the possibility of using plants as a construction, producing bio-materials on-site or providing balanced environmental circulation within the building. What is more, my design aim is to introduce bio-incrementality – taking the time needed for growing required elements as an important factor, providing usability of the construction during every stage of growth.

Ephemerality Architecture

Ephemerality Architecture

Claartje L'Herminez

In our fast developing modern society I, as an architecture student, experience an increasing human resistance against the inevitable processes of change, imperfection, impermanence, incompleteness and transience. It is difficult to understand what the essence is for our happiness. Within this research project I would like to reflect on this by exploring the philosophical and architectural dilemmas between eternity and transience and perseverance and ephemerality. The project aims to describe architectural concepts and develop tools based on different philosophical and architectural movements in which perishability and ephemerality play a key role. It will aim to provide a better understanding of the relationship between these concepts and their role in modern architecture. I hope to identify an approach how architects could possibly contribute to a better acceptance of these human core values.

Waiting: Rhythmic Bodies and Spaces

Waiting: Rhythmic Bodies and Spaces

Hai Xie

We strive now more than ever for a life of productivity in defined events and spaces, on the other side of which waiting is implicated as a waste, something to be diminished by any means. Still we constantly wait. In waiting, and towards waiting, bodies are repeatedly captured and reproduced by contemporary architecture. The tension between bodily rhythms in waiting, and spatial rhythms generates a theatrical force shaping architectural experience and public life. However, as designers who structures places where bodies perform, we do not understand waiting enough, for we do not consider such mundane activity (if one would call it as such) important to investigate.

The thesis looks into the bodily experience in waiting through the concept of rhythm and ritornello. Waiting is seen as a time when the social time fails to be captured by mathematical time, when bodily rhythms intertwine, disturb intensively with spatial rhythms. By studying certain affects experienced in bodies in relation to architecture, the project investigates how layered performative territorization can be empowered in waiting, through affects.

 

Keywords: waiting; body; rhythm; ritornello; territory; subjectivity; interiority

Post-Labour Architecture

Post-Labour Architecture

Justin Frank

Living in an ever accelerating world, my fascination is how technology will impact our lives in more and more ways in the future. We are on the cusp of a new age, with AI ubiquitous and a society unrecognisable from today’s. How will architecture respond when most of society no longer have jobs? How will cities react when they are no longer necessary to create wealth and people can live anywhere? How will society behave when the current structures disappear? Architecture and urbanism must start addressing these problems now, as the future will be here faster than we think.

Course coordinator & tutor

Course coordinator & tutor

Robert Nottrot

Field: Architectural Design
Explore Lab tutor since: 2005, coordinator since 2009
Personal motivation to contribute to explore lab: Teaching in Explore Lab is exciting because of the diversity of projects and the chance to make designs extreme, so that they inspire even more. Generally the graduates are very motivated and do research of high quality, which is enriching my knowledge too.

Expanding universes on shrinking footprints

Dominik Philipp Bernátek

While cities densify, and fill up with building mass, it is of great importance to pay high attention to good quality public space. People should feel at home not only inside, but also outside the building – in the city itself. My graduation is about dwelling architecture in relation to public space, because there the ‘clash’ between public and private is most apparent and a core issue.

The research project deals with transitions between public space and adjacent private space of dwelling. The research question is ‘What are architectural tools that create a transition between public and private space?’ My research started with a form of plan analysis, from which I extracted some elements. Continuing my research through designing, I created for each tool a gradient. I ordered my results in categories influencing levels of privacy for my final toolbox. My method is closely related to ACRREx (Abstracting, Categorizing, Reflecting, Reformulating and Expanding).

The design project will deal with dwelling architecture and public space in the theme: expanding universes on shrinking footprints.

THE SILENT LAKE: A COMMUNITY BASED ALTERNATIVE FOR EXPLORING RURAL DYNAMICS

THE SILENT LAKE: A COMMUNITY BASED ALTERNATIVE FOR EXPLORING RURAL DYNAMICS

Kevin Jan Mazanek

For a long time, experts have focused their attention mainly towards the city and the urban development. As a consequence of largely concentrating on urban areas, the rural space has been left aside in the contemporary discourse even though the societal and technological changes in “rural areas” have been highly dynamic considering recent history. As Rem Koolhaas stated: “The countryside is an amalgamation of tendencies that are outside our overview and outside our awareness. Our current obsession with only the city is highly irresponsible because one cannot understand the city without understanding the countryside.”

Alongside the fast development of cities, digitalization, the threats of an unstable political as well as economic situation and a wish for a simpler life, more and more citizens are migrating towards rural areas. These modern nomads tend to organize themselves in communities occupying the countryside while still being connected to the “city”.

In order to study the implications and potentials of such rural communities, we will collaborate with a group of young adults and their families that initiated a similar project at the “Silent Lake” in Poland situated in the Kaszub forest north-west from Warsaw. The core of the ideas cultivated at the Silent Lake is the exploration of a “new lifestyle” that bridges the knowledge gained through operating in the globalised world with a conscient return to the countryside on a journey to rediscover traditional values and skills related to a more sustainable way of living (experimenting with “new-old” ways of thinking, living and building) and share this knowledge with each other. During our study, we will collaborate with the community at the Silent Lake in order to explore the further development of the “Silent Settlement” within a participatory design project.

Spectacle in the Hinterlands

Spectacle in the Hinterlands

Jazmin Charalambous

London is well-known for its “iconic” buildings, however it is common that little attention is given to the places hidden in the shadows of these icons. Further out from the centre, in the suburbs of northwest London – dubbed ‘Metro-Land’ by the Metropolitan Railway in 1915 – is the site of Wembley Stadium, which overshadows much of its neighbouring towns. I am interested in analysing the interstices between the extraordinary and the everyday in these hinterlands, and how it is possible to bring a sense of the spectacular and its virtues into the daily life of the people occupying these often unseen and unheard-of parts of London.

This interest can be investigated by understanding the qualities of modern theatre, which attempts to create the biggest impact through the smallest possible mediations – creating theatre that is truthful, alive and meaningful by imposing constraints. The surface of space becomes the mode of exploration in an attempt to understand how surfaces are the commons that allow people the necessary silence and excitement to harness the relationships made in public and private life, and which render the invisible visible.

Keywords: Spectacle, Everyday, Surface, Theatre, Materiality, Territory, Constraint

An architecture for the mind – lessons on the theory of Dom Hans van der Laan

An architecture for the mind – lessons on the theory of Dom Hans van der Laan

Joppe Douma

I think everyone knows the experience of climbing a sand dune to find the impressive view of an immense beach and measureless sea. It’s almost too much to take in. For a moment you lose yourself.
These kind of experiences led the architect and monk Hans van der Laan to investigate how we search for grip in the immense space.
Based on our perceptual abilities, the human discernment, he developed a proportional system. The goal is to create an architecture that establishes order in its environment, thus making it readable.
Rather than using the metric system, as we don’t perceive a space in meters, he uses a series of measurements that relate to each other. It’s not about fixed numbers but about the relation between the different parts which together compose a harmonious space.
In our current society full of impulses it’s good to grasp back on a way to create architecture which offers rest, peace and order, which is understandable and makes us feel at ease.

By describing, testing and showing the implications in models of the important aspects of the theory, I hope to offer an understandable insight of the application of the theory. In this way it can become a design manual on the use of proportion, colour and material.

Architecture beyond human narcissism

Architecture beyond human narcissism

Sjoerd Rasing

What can or should architecture offer in a ‘world’ beyond human solipsism?
-Dealing with Anthropocentric crises in the framework of Hannah Arendt-

“The world is that what we, as human beings, construct in order to make life possible on earth”. Hannah Arendt writes in ‘The Human Condition’, “The conditions that we make are used to create a buffer or shield against the conditions that we inherit, our self-made conditions mediate between ourselves and the pre-existing conditions that we operate under”. The Modern Western city has developed over the past decades of great wealth into controlled utopia’s of well-being and humane comfort. This has come with a price. We are confronted with climatic and ecological crises in the reality of the anthropocene, and seem to be unable to adapt to, are frightened by the fact that the unknown wild has always remained as close to the surface as blood under skin.
According to the Indian writer Amitav Ghosh, “The Paris Climate Accord illustrates the inability to imagine a different world, while it’s full of technocratic solutions”. Koolhaas writes “The citizens the smart city claims to serve are treated like infants”. …”Why do smart cities only offer improvement? Where is the possibility of transgression?”

The world should be a stage for political action, Arendt wrote. Serving the small scale conversation, here and now. This does not mean two brand new cozy chairs opposite to each other. It needs a notion of melancholia. Find hope and expose beauty in the permanent presence of our deficiency.

Understanding the commonly overlooked spaces and details of the city 

Understanding the commonly overlooked spaces and details of the city 

Esmeralda Bierma

In the contemporary city productivity and efficiency became dominating factors of our everyday life. In these routinized and accelerated moments we all create our own image of the city and filter out the things which we consider important. My fascination is about these spaces and details of the city that are commonly overlooked or taken for granted but nevertheless conceal information crucial to develop an understanding of the city and the human. In order to understand the potential and possibilities of these overlooked details, unexpected moments and unplanned spaces we should make room for the first hand perspective of the subject moving through the city and allowing slowness and uncertainty. Through a narrative approach these fragmented parts of the city can become a continuity again and will allow us to revalue the importance of these unexpected and unplanned in-betweens.

Our Mutual Home

Our Mutual Home

Benjamin Summers

This project aims to study the specific formal and spatial language of successful collaborative housing with particular emphasis on dense urban typologies in Stockholm, London, Zurich and Antwerp. Despite the importance of the sociological and financial aspects, the focus will be on the architectural elements.

Framed as a method of forming resilient communities through architectural implementation, cohousing has become an area of renewed interest in mainstream critique in part due to the perceived failures of welfare capitalism and increasing levels of loneliness in cities. In a contemporary social situation where working long hours is the norm, and of the remaining free time more than half can be taken up by domestic duties, the question of how we can live together in a scenario where domestic labour is shared by all and thus reduced to a minimum appears to be of utmost importance.

As well as this key enquiry, it is asserted that within this way of living the traditional relationship between served and servant spaces is further broken down, if not inverted. It remains to be seen whether this shift necessarily precludes the existence of domestic elegance à la sprezzatura, or instead replaces it with a more grounded sense of refinement.

La Petite Ceinture: reanimating the urban fringe

La Petite Ceinture: reanimating the urban fringe

Coen van Bergeijk

Just inside the city of Paris lays a derelict train track, hidden and forgotten, called “La Petite Ceinture”, the little belt. This belt of abandonment forms a ring through the outer arrondissements and connects these utterly different worlds through a place of continuity. It forms a connection between the shabby areas of the 19th arrondissement with the fancy old ladies in the 16th and mingles the posh families of the 14th with the hipsters in the 20th.

It was built in the 1850’s, but finally stopped functioning as a public transport in the 30’s with the emerging of the metro and by the 1990’s it was abandoned for good. Its tracks traverse the city on high bridges and within deep trenches, through green islands and dark tunnels. Now some of its former stations found new destinations, while others are left to insubordination and the forces of nature. The tracks and tunnels now form a welcome hub of lawlessness, drawing in graffiti artists, vagabonds, urban explorers and mischievous kids, eager to escape the control of the city.

On an urban level I try to connect the neighbourhoods once more, using the former stations as points of transition. Later, I zoom in on two recently abandoned stations and the small part of the tracks in between, reimagining them as a public walkway, whilst maintaining the values of decay. This way I can restore not only the physical ring, but reanimate the immaterial presence of “la Petite Ceinture” in the minds of the Parisians.

AZC 2.0: a new Dutch asylum centre

AZC 2.0: a new Dutch asylum centre

Thomas Cowling

Currently there are estimated to be around 65 million displaced people in the world. Economic or political turmoil, climate change and war have forced millions to leave their homes and migrate to a place that offers them a better future. Some have ended up in The Netherlands and have entered the process of seeking asylum and permanent residence.

The liminal spaces they inhabit in that time are far removed from public life and are based on an outdated system of enclosure and control: often hampering the desire to integrate into, and offer a meaningful contribution to Dutch society. Through understanding these environments and the people in them, I aim to come up with a better environment for these new-arrivals to integrate into their new surroundings. A new type of asylum centre for the 21st century, one that offers the asylum seeker more of a chance at societal inclusion.

Redeveloping agricultural heritage in central Italy

Redeveloping agricultural heritage in central Italy

André van Deursen

Central Italy is famous for its iconic hillside agricultural landscape. This view of hills with scattered farmhouses is unfortunately in trouble. Since the latest agricultural tradition of the ‘mezzadria’ was left from the 1970’s on, a large agricultural building stock became vacant and started to decay. Some buildings were saved by redesigning them into holiday housing but many are not that lucky. Tuscany is a very successful region in redeveloping the agricultural estates in new cooperatives and the remaining buildings are easily transformed into holiday houses, agriturismi and Bed&Breakfasts. Regions like Umbria however, are staying at the lower end of these developments.

In this project I take the situation at the Principality of Parrano in Umbria as casestudy. The agricultural tradition in this region goes back to the Etruscans that arrived here around 800 BC. Centuries long, the agricultural practice here was based on the mezzadria sharecropping contracts but since the second half of the twentieth century the production came to a halt caused by the illegalization of the mezzadria in 1982.

My intention is to develop a new strategy for this agricultural estate in Parrano to make it functional and profitable again, based on the longstanding local agricultural tradition and cultural heritage of the buildings and landscape. Hereby the aim is to make the local agricultural economy self-sufficient and independent of tourism, which will be considered as secondary income.The introduction of new farming-types like solar- and ICT farming will be implemented to evolve the Principality of Parrano towards a sustainable future.

The project will be developed further into a new architectural design for one of the vacant buildings: Podere Bovorosso. Heritage will be the starting point from which the aim is to design and develop a profitable and sustainable future for this specific farm.

The Entering Process

The Entering Process

Anaïs Sarvary

When visiting a building one moment is particularly important: the entrance.

It is the moment that gives the first impression of the building and therefore influences the experience of the visitor. Religious architecture on this aspect is specifically relevant as the visitor is meant to be changed when accessing the central space and detached from the outside. However in other architectural types of building similar effects are achieved by a strong architectural entering process. Memorials, museums, swimming pools, tribunals, operas etc. all aim at creating an interiority separated from the outside.  But how does the entering process in these buildings conditions the visitor’s experience?

When analysing and exploring buildings we are often focused on the architecture of the central space. However we forget that main spaces are always preceded by different spatial experiences. Understanding how this entering process work will enable to better perceive why some spaces affect us more than others. And it will allow adapting better the notion of entrance to the effect wanted when designing a building.

THE ART OF MEMORY: POST-WAR SARAJEVO

THE ART OF MEMORY: POST-WAR SARAJEVO

Ravenna Westerhout

How does the war influence the Bosnian society of today?

Case study: Mt. Trebevic

From April 1992, the inhabitants of Sarajevo lived for three years, ten months, three weeks and three days under the threat of snipers, mortars and bombs. During this longest attack in modern European history, 13,952 people were killed, including 5434 civilians. The war itself claimed about 100 thousand lives and forced 2.2 million people to flee their homes.

Conflicts leave places wounded. The scars of war are still visible on the streets of Sarajevo. War is over, but the city is still under siege, under a cultural, economical and psychological siege. The energy to rebuild a true future seems to have disappeared. Everything has become stained with guilt. New monuments have been erected as tokens of exclusion and there is a climate of distrust – but why? To truly understand this, I am going to research the source of the problems: the war.

How to come to terms with the past? How to commemorate? The past plays an important role in the collective memory, but also forms the basis from which the soul of a new city is constructed. How can an inclusive architecture be created that can be used as a restoring tool to unite people, to create a common ground, a new identity?

Case study: Mount Trebevic used to be a powerful symbol of Sarajevo, but its symbolism as a sacred place has evolved since the 1984 Winter Olympics, the siege from 1992-1995, the delineation of a new national border in 1995. An abandoned, neglected space is what the mountain is today.

 

 

Projective Realms . Mess is More !

Projective Realms . Mess is More !

Deepanshu Arneja

The architectural discipline  has always maintained a safe distance from the ‘informal’ settlements by positioning itself as objective outsiders. However, in the case of India’s capital city of Delhi with 73% of its population living in these settlements, the discipline has been forced to re-position itself. Forming outside the claims of regulation and planning, the sheer existence of these settlements challenges the city’s aspiration to become a ‘world city’. Resultant, is a love-hate dynamic where a high-modernist design propaganda seeks to evict the urban poor’s position in the city to a ‘safe’ distance where they are out of sight but in the appropriate range to aid the city function.

I base my study in ‘Savda Ghevra’, Delhi’s first resettlement colony developed 24 miles outside the city core to re-house slum dwellers evicted from inner city areas. Envisioned as a transition camp, it is home to more than 20,000 inhabitants for a period within which they are expected to rise the economical ladder until they are deemed fit to claim a position in the city. The design of the ‘camp’, involved a process of ‘formalizing’ the informal and invited disciplinarian aid, which by the virtue of ‘always being outside the system’ was exceedingly limited in the understanding and translational of the emergent qualities of a user-generated informal dwelling. With rigid dwelling typologies, unregulated open/shared space structure and an incoherent application of ‘incrementality’, Savda Ghevra is an architectural mess.

This thesis attempts an iteration to existing approaches by offering income-based alternatives to typology creation and usage, while providing a participatory tool to create and curate open spaces in Indian informal settlements as a way forward.

Design of integration

Design of integration

Amela Rasidkadic

The Netherlands, like most Western European countries, has dealt with over 94.000 refugee asylum applications since 2014 (CBS, 2017). This large number has demanded a quick reaction for emergency shelter. The field of architecture has responded to this situation with different shelter proposals and projects.
Although providing enough shelter is still an ongoing process, the question that has to be considered now is: what to do next? Almost 90% of the asylum seekers gets a legal status, which allows them to get their own home and become part of the Dutch society. At this transition moment these new legal status holders are vulnerable, they have to find their place in society. Research states that this is best done by participation and interaction with local inhabitants, but in practice it does not always go as smoothly as people hope. Often this group struggles with feeling at home, finding a job, learning the language and there is almost no interaction with local inhabitants.
This makes me think about how to create a broader network for post-arrival migrants, how to contribute to a more collective experience for them and local inhabitants and mainly explore my position as an architect in such a situation.

TRACING EVENTS: THE INFLUENCES OF EVENTS IN THE CITY

TRACING EVENTS: THE INFLUENCES OF EVENTS IN THE CITY

Lukas Kropp

Events in a city can have different influences on their architectural framework. An event can happen, then disappear or it can leave traces, leaving reminders of the event, influencing the city long after the event has gone. How do events interpret their architectural framework, how do they affect it and what traces do they leave? This research will focus on events in the city Kassel (DE) and the quinquennial event ‘documenta’. Through drawing, photographs and mapping, this research will explore the traces of past events and their influence of the future of the city. The ‘documenta’ will be seen as a contemporary institution that is currently leaving its traces in Kassel every five years. This research aims to define the appropriation of the architectural framework by events and the traces that they leave behind and how these traces could mean something for the inhabitants.

Città Fabbrica

Città Fabbrica

Mariapaola Michelotto

The monastic life can be used as a metaphor to explain the control exerted by the industrial system on the nowadays society. The aim of both is to establish a specific sequence of actions able to give shape to a specific mode of life, based on the laws of efficiency, industriousness and productivity. This sequence of actions becomes therefore the tool to shape architectural space.  Or in other words, the city becomes the tool for the creation of an absolute mode of life. It is my belief that the unfolding of these tools could provide us with a different interpretation of our current economic system, allowing us to reimagine alternative ways of working and living.

To carry on my research I decided to take the city of Togliatti (RU) as a study case. Togliatti was built in the 1960s as a mono-town: an agglomerate of housing and facilities that was meant to serve the industrial complex of the Avtovaz, car manufacturer. In this context, the city acted in the same way of a monastery in imposing specific habits to its inhabitants, in order to make the production process more efficient and increase the accumulation of capital.

My intention is that of unveiling what is the regola established by the production system, and how does it manifest itself in the architectural realm of the city, influencing flows of people and objects.

How do fashion designers design?

How do fashion designers design?

Geertje Bakens

A research on the design process in fashion, reflected on architecture.

Architectural theory has illuminated the inherently connected relationship between fashion and architecture. Both disciplines shelter the body, react to spatial volume, rely on a process, and take a work of creativity from its two-dimensional concept into a three-dimensional reality. But the end result does not come out of the blue. It is the design process that leads to a building or fashion collection. And even though designing is just one verb, it actually is a chaotic sequence of activities; a complex, personal, creative and open-ended skill as described by Van Dooren et al. (2014). Is the framework of generic design elements that is developed for explicating the design process helpful to compare the design approaches in fashion with the architectural design process? The results of interviewing three fashion designers show similarities, differences and unique design tools and opportunities used in fashion. These can then be reflected on the architectural design process, and approaches of applying fashion tools in architecture can be considered.

The revaluation of nature through architecture: Learning from the Norwegian way of living

The revaluation of nature through architecture: Learning from the Norwegian way of living

Wilma Hiemstra

In an ongoing movement of urbanization in especially the Netherlands, life seems to mostly happen in planned environments while the untouched part of the world sometimes seems to be disconnected from people’s lives. By looking at a country like Norway where space and culture support combined living in natural landscapes and the city, as quite an extreme contrast, the relation between landscape, architecture, and lifestyle can be explored. Through interviews/conversations with young Norwegians residing both in Oslo (urban environment) and in their cabin (getaway architecture: focussed on landscape experience/lifestyle), making a timeline of their daily activities, and asking them to visualize their favourite place, the different sensory experiences that are created in both places and its influences can be analysed. Moreover, a plan analysis of both dwellings will be done as informative aspect of the research. Together this will answer the question in a literary and visual way, where the essence of valuing a landscape by living in it will be leading. This will function as a starting point for the design, where the lessons learned will be applied to the different situation of the Netherlands, resulting in a revaluation of its cultured landscape as the ultimate goal.

How can the interplay between architecture, landscape, and lifestyle in the form of ‘getaway architecture’ stimulate a (personal) (re)valuation of a landscape?

Designing homes for ‘the conscious’

Designing homes for ‘the conscious’

Danique van de Sanden

‘’The good intentions and creativity of citizens and their willingness to make a difference is one of the most underutilized resources we have today’’, says Global Ecovillage Network Europe (GEN). Bottom-up initiatives like ecovillages and the recently emerged Dutch ‘Tiny House Movement’ are sustainable projects organised and shaped by people who adopted a sustainable lifestyle and with that contribute to the reduction of climate change. It appears that similar people can’t find a suitable living environment in the current housing stock that fully meet their needs. While, in a world where nowadays climate change is a big problem, we should encourage this group of people to get most out of their willingness by giving them the right conditions in the built environment. As architects, we can learn from the way residents of tiny-houses and eco-villages organise and shape their sustainable environment and use this knowledge in the design of future dwellings.

The Consumerist Typology in a Socialist Country: investigating Croatia’s modern project

The Consumerist Typology in a Socialist Country: investigating Croatia’s modern project

Christian Maijstré

In general, shopping centers are somewhat underexposed academically speaking. With the turbulence of the transition period in the area only barely over, investigations on previous and recent developments in Croatian society are of importance as to learn how to move further from now.

As Yugoslavia tried and develop a different kind of socialism, self-government and openness to the West created a unique position in which a capitalist typology such as the shopping center could exist. By conducting a typological research of the shopping centers –Robna Kuca and Trgovacki Centar, a narrative on how the modern project developed in the Socialist Republic of Croatia can form.

Parallel to this narrative is of course CIAM and its subsequent fall. Contact between CIAM, Team 10 and Yugoslav (Croatian) architects did occur, and hints at the socialist tendencies of some of the architects of the West. Investigating the relation of Gruen’s shopping centers to CIAM and Team 10, and subsequently the relation to the Yugoslav context might give insights on how modernism was expressed in Yugoslavia/Croatia keeping of course in mind parallels might not always indicate dependence. To see how these related or developed independently can open up a conversation of how the modern project developed in Yugoslavia.

The question arises: how did the consumerist typology of the shopping center develop in the previously socialist Yugoslav Socialist Republic of Croatia and how did (or didn’t) it survive the transition to a neoliberal economy?

Centralities in the suburban: an alternative to the shopping mall

Centralities in the suburban: an alternative to the shopping mall

Virginia Santilli

In the last decades, architects and urbanists observed carefully the effect of globalization on the city, but the effect on the countryside has been neglected. The suburban shopping mall became the main attractor, both commercially and socially. For the new generations that normalized the dichotomy of common space and the need to buy, this world interior of capital became the new centrality of the diffuse city. While the old town squares are empty and the local commercial activities are perishing, it appears clear that in these areas the public administration failed. Nevertheless, it is currently raising a third voice in between public and private that could change the actual state of things. What happens if cooperatives of local commercial actors work with architects and urban planners to intervene on leftover spaces and buildings to give birth to an alternative centrality?

Living apart together

Living apart together

Nienke Borgman

Space in major cities around the world is getting increasingly scarce and therefore expensive. This is especially a problem for people between the ages of 20 to 35. This age group is what we call the ‘generation Y’. Coincidence is that this generation actually wants to share more in order to waste less (look at Airbnb, Uber, Greenwheels etc.). So what if we apply this same theory to space? Can we waste less space by sharing more? Can we supply sufficient housing for the group that needs it most by creating exactly what they want; less waste (of space) by sharing more? I think we can.

From World Expo to Expo World

From World Expo to Expo World

Marthe van Gils

Although World Expo’s appearance changed drastically over the past 150 years, the colonial power structure on which it is based is still visible today. At the Expo nations represent themselves by the means of architectural pavilions that do not allow for any interrelation, which quickly fall into stereotyping, and in this way do not promote an inclusive worldview. This project aims to contribute with an inclusive architectural model for an Expo of the World, by creating pavilions that allow for reflection and introspection across the globe, exposing both the internal versatility and contradictions of the everyday, and the fundamentals shared on earth.

Demystifying Abstraction

Demystifying Abstraction

Deyan Saev

Abstraction plays a central role, as both a language and an essential tool for design.Serving as a way of extracting information, architects often rely on abstraction to define and solve complex design problems. However, the steps behind the process of abstraction itself are rarely explicitly taught or discussed in architectural education. As a result, inexperienced architects often do not have a clear idea of how best to apply this process in their own work. The aim of this research is to put forward a teaching model that would help and guide beginner architects to better understand and use abstraction as a method of generating effective concepts. This model is reflected in the process through which I go about designing an extension to the National Library of Bulgaria in Sofia

The ice rink of the future

The ice rink of the future

Eline Stubert

Due to climate change, the ice skating sport is forced to be practiced indoors. These buildings, called ice rinks, have an image of great energy consumption and waste. By building these rinks we are contributing to climate change even more. Their typology includes  closed facades and they are build in the cheapest way possible, which gives them an industrial look, mostly implemented in industrial areas.  The location and appearance of these buildings aren’t generating high visitor numbers.

Due to their unattractiveness and high energy bills these rinks will be unprofitable from the moment they are build till the end of their lifetime.  This downwards spiral needs to be stopped.

During my graduation project I want to find ways to make an ice rink energy neutral, and incorperate these solutions into my design proposal of a new ice rink. Which shows the value of the ice skating sport and makes it more accessible to the common public.

Floating Modular Community

Floating Modular Community

Yafim Simanovsky

Urban populations in coastal contexts suffer increasingly from both environmental and spatial risks in the 21st century. Major flooding events, storms, fires, landslides and earthquakes coupled with the unorganized urban fabric located at the locations most at-risk to these hazards render millions of people extremely vulnerable.
The negative effects in terms of economic opportunity, environmental safety and infrastructural stability are particularly evident in major urban agglomerations where the urban poor suffer from lack of housing, sanitation, clean water, and legal status.
Specifically in Manila, a third of the city’s inhabitants are considered urban poor and live either in slums or in informal housing conditions. The city is an exemplary case of a developing metropolis with multiple water features and geographical conditions which faces the mentioned urban failures and risks in parallel with natural hazards on a yearly basis.
New typologies and solutions need to be sought to understand how to deal with issues of urban land, infrastructure, housing and sanitation, and improved resilience.
As land and flooding are the two core elements which effect all other conditions faced by the urban poor, the design asks how can new land that does not flood be designed as a floating module for a self-sufficient community in the flood-risk context of Manila, Philippines, in order to provide the urban poor population with the means to improve their lives through a more resilient spatial environment.
The design includes strategies both constructional and typological, as well as infrastructure of waste and water management and energy production, so that it will offer an economically and feasibly comparable and sufficiently developed alternative to current practices.

The Illusion of Inclusion

The Illusion of Inclusion

Maya van der Lande

The architecture of psychiatric care has always been influenced by the conceptions of man and society. The Dutch health care system is currently undergoing some mayor changes. Vulnerable people with psychiatric disorders will no longer stay in a institution far away from the community, but will live independent in the neighbourhood, in the inclusive society. In reality independent living faces these people with some challenges such as loneliness, social isolation, stigmatisation, absence of safety nets of outpatient care, a lack of suitable low-cost rental housing and a society that is not entirely inclusive, resulting in, among others a ‘not in my backyard’ attitude towards these people. So now again the architecture of psychiatric care will be influenced by these changes within society. My research aims to develop and design architectural principles to enable psychiatric patients to live independently within the community.

A SUSTAINABLE HABITAT FOR SURINAME: CLIMATE RESPONSIVE DESIGN FOR THE HUMID TROPICAL COUNTRY OF SURINAME

A SUSTAINABLE HABITAT FOR SURINAME: CLIMATE RESPONSIVE DESIGN FOR THE HUMID TROPICAL COUNTRY OF SURINAME

Dion Lachman

As a VWO student in Suriname I made the decision to study at the TU Delft in the Netherlands with the ambition of improving my home country of Suriname. I chose architecture, because of my fascination with the built environment. My ambition is to improve architecture in Suriname. This is the reason why I’m fascinated by Tropical Architecture. I’m interested in architectural methods that can avoid imported unnecessary materials and technology to improve the sustainability in Suriname.

“Building in the Tropics means a confrontation in terms of construction and function with extreme climatic conditions”, Wolfgang Lauber. (Lauber, 2005)

In moderate climatic zones the builder and architect combats cold and damp by using insulated external walls and sophisticated heating systems. By contrast, the architect in the Tropics must battle against heat, solar radiation, heavy rainfalls and high air humidity. To make these building comfortable without mechanical cooling systems, climate responsive design can contribute. These cooling systems use six time as much energy as space heating.(Lauber, 2005)

“Climate is clearly one of the prime factors in culture, and therefore built form. It is the mainspring for all the sensual qualities that add up to a vital tropical architecture”, Tan Hock Beng. (Hock Beng, 1994)

I’m researching Climate Responsive Design for Suriname and will use this to design a Sustainable Social Housing Project in Lelydorp, the capital of district Wanica in Suriname.

The Architecture of Death

The Architecture of Death

Skander Saâdi

Death plays a fundamental part in our life. The sadness and despair that accompanies it, have also the power to make us deeply think about the essence of our existence on earth: about who we are, where we belong and where we are going. Death gives meaning to life.

Unfortunately, in our contemporary Western society, death is a taboo subject. We fear it and we try to ignore it. We do not mind it until reaching a certain age or until we are unexpectedly confronted with it. A clear distinction is made between death and life. We value the antitheses of death: youth and vitality. While on the other side, death is considered as shameful and forbidden. Consequently, anyone dealing with it does not contribute to the good functioning of the society and finds himself isolated from the daily life.

These issues question the quality and responsibility of today’s funerary architecture in relation to society’s way of living. How should architecture, today, position itself towards death?

Architecture Graphic Graphic Architecture

Architecture Graphic Graphic Architecture

Michael Tjia

If it is the shift from the construction site to the designer’s studio which sets building apart from architecture, then an investigation of the architect’s studio is imperative. Here, the drawing board, in all its iterations, is a vital tool to produce sketches, diagrams and drawings, to study, inform and seduce, and possibly, to build.

In its built form, architecture continuously broadcasts content, much like its graphic counterpart before it. It is because of this that buildings fall under continuous scrutiny of the public, generating meaning and relevance or entering mainstream conversation in the form of unapologetic nicknames.

Borrowing from communication methods already used at the drawing board, architecture itself could be deployed as a communication medium. I will study these forms of communication in the highly graphic and representative landscape of the Bollenstreek. Both utilising and shaking off any possible form of interpretation, ducks and (un)decorated sheds will be developed for an alternative showcase of Dutch flowers and horticulture.

I Am My Home

I Am My Home

Marjolein Overtoom

Designing homes with meanings:
Construction of a tool based on human values

Houses were among the first structures that were built, and remain the most common type of building today. The design of housing has been the subject of architecture, while from a
psychological point of view the meaning of home has been a major subject of research. These two different viewpoints are combined in this research to provide a tool for designers to design based on values. First a quantitative study was carried out to match activities and spaces in the home to human values (Schwartz, 2000).

The features of spaces around us and how we orient ourselves in space is related to the human body (Tuan, 1977). For example space in front or upwards is seen as future and
illuminating, while the experience of spaciousness is related to freedom. Consequently, space that is behind is seen as the past, or dark; something more important or superior is elevated and faced towards you. Depending on the culture either left or right is seen as more pure, while the other side is seen as dirty. The meanings attributed to attics and basements (Korosec-Serfaty, 1984) also distinguishes the two by describing them as opposites; the attic and cellar as hidden opposed to the living space as visible and ‘high’-status; and the cellar is dark and enclosed, and once appropriated, not dirty any more. Also when the attic and cellar are full of things, they give security or affluence, knowing there is enough food or seeing all the things someone owns. Another way in which people distinguish features of space is by spatial styles (Beck, 1970). There are five spatial styles that people use to differentiate between elements in the environment (without attaching any meanings to them). These are diffuse space vs. dense space, delineated vs. open space, verticality vs. horizontality, right and left in the horizontal plane, and up and down in de vertical plane. As such, orientations in space do seem to have meanings in the same way as values; as two opposites on the same line. However, which values relate to which activities, which spaces, and which spatial oppositions is not known. This research is a first attempt towards building a design-tool based on human values.

This resulted in a design-tool that consists of the ten values (hedonism, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, conformity, tradition, power, and achievement) associated activities and spaces, and hierarchical graphs based on space syntax. Lastly opposing spatial features were laid over the two dimensions (openness to change vs. conservation and self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement). Subsequently this tool was used to design seven houses which were used to find out whether the values designed in the houses were also recognised as such. Houses with values preferred by the interviewees, were chosen more often than values on the other end of the circle, indicating that the tool is of some help when certain meanings need to be communicated by design.

(METRO) POLIS

Soscha Monteiro de Jesus

(METRO) POLIS refers to the reciprocal relation between the urban environment and the metro system in Tokyo, Japan. In November 2016, its largest fish market relocates, leaving behind a vast territory in one of the central wards. As a strategy to connect this post-industrial territory to the everyday of the Tokyoites, a metro station is proposed in a former market hall of the Tsukiji Shijō.

The design aims to release the potential of the transport hub as an urban centre, by redefining the metro station as a generous, inclusive place that allows a multitude of practices and timespaces to unfold: a place for the Tokyoites.

Contested heritage, memory and metamorphoses

Contested heritage, memory and metamorphoses

Iris van der Wal

The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana, better known as the Square Colosseum, is one of the most iconic buildings of the EUR-district in Rome. The area was built to host the World Expo of 1942 and celebrate twenty years of Fascism. The edifice gained popularity through its appearance in movies, and lately as the new headquarters of the fashion brand Fendi. Using the Square Colosseum as imagery for logos, stores and fashion shows, the building is re-branded from Fascism to fashion, reducing heritage to its subjective aesthetic value.

I provide another view on dealing with contested heritage by creating a contemporary context by intervening in the building, its surroundings and imagery. Rather than following the organised policy of forgetting the past, the layered redesign will show the traces of time and the contrasting attitudes towards society.

Void Capital: The Architecture of Perpetual Modernity

Void Capital: The Architecture of Perpetual Modernity

iason stathatos

VOID CAPITAL proposes a new model of densification for the Western Metropolis.

VOID CAPITAL is a process which intervenes in the unbuilt to generate architecture for the city.

VOID CAPITAL understands the fundamentals’ role in architecture’s long-term struggle  to house novel desires.

VOID CAPITAL questions the existing gradients of ownership amongst workspace, domestic and public spheres in the emerging pedestrian-friendly urban core.

VOID CAPITAL  challenges muséification, banal urban removal, the invention of new forms per se, periphery’s social isolation, the commodification of leisure.

VOID CAPITAL claims that the accommodation of the swifting capitalist program to the built infrastructure is a process in which the void holds an essential role.

Temporary Architect

Temporary Architect

Saimi Triemstra

In the Netherlands (and all over Europe) we all have seen the signs on empty office buildings that tell us that it is for sale or for rent. At this moment almost 16 percent of the total office floor area is empty. This problem is mainly caused by a mismatch between supply and demand. While the problem is well-known, not much is done to create solution for it. In my graduation project I will make a solution for this problem. The solution that I will provide will be focussed on temporary transformation of the vacancy. Temporary solutions are realized quicker and also can be built down again quicker. This fast approach to the problem can help to create a direct boost for the neighborhood. So the focus in this graduation project is the temporary use of vacant offices. But the real question is about the role of the architect in these projects. And what instruments the architect can use when dealing with this projects. That is what will create the end result of my project. In the design I will focus on an office building in Rotterdam and see how I can use the instruments I found earlier in the process.

The Art of Ageing

The Art of Ageing

Maria Rohof

Decay and decline are always happening and we as humans normally trying to increase that. I think we try
to hard which result in unnatural outcomes. For example the whole cosmetic industry, but also in architecture.
As architects we are used to build in a permanent way. Buildings and structures that outlive us. We are trying to capture our building environment, because it give us identity. But hereby we mostly manipulating history for different purposes. Why are we trying to fool ourself.

This project will be a search to understanding the way of how we build nowadays and what it can be in the future.

Real-time City

Real-time City

Loes Thijssen

Today’s cities and buildings are planned inefficiently. When people go to work or school, most homes remain empty during the day. And during the night, most offices, schools, gyms etc have been left behind. Can’t we think about a more efficient way of planning? Can’t we imagine a city where spaces just exist for the time they are desired and needed? Currently we are controlling our lives to create minimumwaste, energy, pollution, but what about (unused) space?

Every citizen is constantly busy with different activities during the day: from daily routines such as toothbrushing and going to work to exceptions as having parties or going to the cinema. As we can’t combine these activities all in the same space we need different spaces in order to create various conditions.

The environment as it is right now is not designed to inhabit fast changing and exible needs. The materials that are forming those spaces are just too static and rigid.City planning and architecture can be much more intelligent using real-time data in order to plan a perfect tailor-made city.

IT’S TIME FOR REAL-TIME!

Craftsmanship and Architecture: a study in the revitalization and relevance of craft in a post-modern society

Craftsmanship and Architecture: a study in the revitalization and relevance of craft in a post-modern society

Aukje Schukken

Looking around, it seems to be everywhere: craft jeans, craft coffee, craft beer, craft furniture, craft bicycles, craft markets, craft festivals, craft-you-name-it. Craft and craftsmanship are making a comeback. Since the onset of the Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, craftsmanship has functioned as pillar concept opposite industrialism or mass-manufacture. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, products were either crafted – high quality and expensive – or mass-manufactured – low quality and cheap. As manufacturing techniques evolved, machines became quite capable of making beautiful, high quality objects and Design with a capital D replaces craftsmanship in the quality v quantity debate. The Designer, or Starchitect in the case of architecture, becomes an untouchable king of production, able to dictate his designs to the market. In the past decade or so, however, the reign of the Designer is waning. More and more, the market (read: users) dictates the product and product design becomes an ongoing, participatory process. Have we finally entered a Post-Industrial Era? Perhaps. Or perhaps the revival of craftsmanship “names an enduring, basic human impulse, the desire to do a job well for its own sake.” (Sennett, 2008). Craftsmanship, which was moved to the sidelines, comes back into the ring, albeit redefined and not necessarily to fight. Craftsmanship doesn’t have to mean ‘hand-made’, since through the impact of digital technology, industry is now able to produce high-quality and custom-made ‘crafted’ products – this is no longer a paradox (Cardoso, 2008).

What this means is that the term ‘craftsmanship’ is being redefined. It is more than a production-based concept, perhaps even a collective process. As Richard Sennett argues in The Craftsman,  craftsmanship is a basic human impulse. With that comes pride in ones work, a sense of purpose, a distinction that has more to do with the motivation that informed the production than the production itself (2008). Part of that is also the thoroughness and integrity that define a product, it’s ability to stand the test of time not only through its durability but also its aesthetic beauty.

As a near-architect, the question that interests me is, what is craft architecture, and how do we get more of it?

Circulaire economie voor architecten

Circulaire economie voor architecten

Fieke Grooters

Circulaire economie is een nieuwe ‘duurzaamheidsbeweging’. Veel partijen zien de voordelen er van in. Het grootste voordeel, ten opzichte van andere duurzaamheidsinitiatieven, is dat het een economie betreft: een totaalplaatje. Daar waar wetgeving vaak slechts een blok aan het been is, zonnepanelen slechts losse objecten zijn en duurzame bouwmaterialen veel te duur zijn, is circulaire economie een  geoliede machine. Waardoor duurzaam handelen een logisch gevolg is, kostenbesparing  door efficiëntie  onvermijdelijk is en niet-duurzaam handelen vanzelf verleden tijd wordt omdat het simpelweg niet meer loont.

Echter, daadwerkelijk de transitie maken blijkt erg moeilijk te zijn voor bedrijven. Koplopers pronken met de stappen die ze gezet hebben, maar de grote meute is nog niet om.

In mijn onderzoek onderzoek ik wat deze nieuwe economie zal betekenen voor de architectenbranche om de stap voor het peloton makkelijker te maken. In mijn ontwerp pas ik de bevindingen toe waarna deze nieuwe stappen uitgebreid gereflecteerd worden.

Analytical Threshold

Analytical Threshold

Martin Vrielink

With current technological developments an architect has never been in a better position to pursue better building performance by simulation. Vast amounts of data is accessible about the design and its performance during a design process. Simulation can be run by the architect himself to give insight in the performance of the building.

This raises the question what the consequences are of such an integration of building performance analysis tools into one’s design process. This graduation project explores the subject of integrating analytical tools in the early stages of the design process and the consequences of doing so. By pinning down the ‘analytical threshold’ an architect encounters statement can be made regarding the way the use of analytical tools relates to current design process theory and framework.

Co-creation in Housing Design

Co-creation in Housing Design

Hanneke Stenfert

In the last decades, attention has become increasingly focused on encouraging the involvement of residents in the creation and regeneration processes of neighbourhoods, streets and buildings. In this context, notions of co-creation have been growing.

Key to the co-creative development of housing is that (future) residents become co-creators of their living environment and thereby partners in the design process. This partnership with residents, however, presents a new set of conditions that challenges the architect’s practice. The aim of my graduation project, therefore, is to explore the co-creative design process and the architect’s practice in these processes, both by research and design.

With my research project, I am investigating the concept of co-creation, the co-creative design process and the relationship between architects and residents in these processes. In my design project I am developing a co-housing project in a former school building in the city of Rotterdam, based on co-creative workshops with a group of residents.

Interested in the project? feel free to contact me.

 

Shared living and the desired level of privacy

Shared living and the desired level of privacy

Merel Paes

Nowadays a lot of people are still moving to our cities. Yet, many of these people, in those cities full of activities, are feeling lonely from time to time. This is caused by our individualistic oriented society and the fact that a growing number of singles is living in one-person households. In order to design cities for the future a new way of living has to be found. This ‘new way of living’ should tackle the social and spatial issues cities are coping with. Solutions are to be found with an unstrained perspective on the strict separation between private and collective spaces. We should focus more on collectivity. Yet, every person needs a certain amount of privacy. This means that we should emphasise on the collective and at the same time comply with the desired level of privacy of every individual. My goal is to design a residential building with the maximum achievable communal space and the minimum needed amount of private spaces for every individual.

architect-developer

architect-developer

Dominik Saitl

Architecture and real estate development are both dealing with the built environment. One is embedded in the other, yet not always present in one or other’s profession. But the tools of the architect commissioned to work for a property developer in the Czech Republic are in general very limited and he is only reliable on somebody else’s, mostly financial profit seeking decisions.

Different social and cultural evolution in the Czech Republic also caused lack of spatial planning and architectural knowledge among general public, politicians, policy makers are contributing significantly to the poor situation on real estate market. People are unfortunately not aware of what they can receive under which price as well as the quality of the space they live or work in, nor they are unable in some cases to absorb and appreciate the offered quality. Therefore, their requirements, to the delight of developers, are lower.

Therefore, real estate developers in Czech Republic are not forced into creating high standard housing which may contribute to their surroundings and cities, nor its users as much as they could. Real estate development is therefore driven mostly by the highest achievable profit possible. Profits are not difficult to create by saving on the building quality by applying cheaper materials or cheaper labor. Developers crave for higher profit over the building’s quality.

I believe that architects need to react to such situations proactively and search for the other less explored roles. I would like to take the perspective of property development and relationship between architects and developers and further research the role of architect-developer. As I would like to play such role in my future career.

The position of an architect who is also a developer may be a tool how to also push the profession further and progress faster, be in closer contact with dwellers and be able to understand their needs and adapt to their needs and provide a dwelling with suits their contemporary lives, design for the people. It is also a way through which the architect can address the needs of the city from a better, stronger position.

The generation of integration

The generation of integration

Maura Henkes

Since the beginning of the Arabian Spring in 2011, many people have fled their homecountries and came to Europe as a refugee. In the Netherlands, this is giving many problems. Not only do we not have enough space in asylum seeker centers to house all refugees, but also Dutch citizens have been protesting against opening new asylum seeker centers. All because of fear for something they are not familiar with.
In the next years an increase in the amount of asylum seekers is expected. Integration will become more important than ever. In order to take away the fear of Dutch citizens, the integration of these asylum seekers has to be started earlier.  Integration has many positive effects, but the first period is critical. Asylum centers could play an important role. However, because of time pressure, most centers lack a beautiful or smart design. They lack value for residents of the surrounding city parts. What if a refugee centre would not only be useful to refugees, but would also be a valuable addition to the existing city? A place for catching up? For letting your children play? For meeting new people?

A place for everyone?

 

 

Educational environments for children in Colombia

Educational environments for children in Colombia

Aimée Artémis Kouyoumdjian

Due to the many years of internal conflict in Colombia many human rights have been violated. On top of this, there is a large diversity in ethnicities and more importantly inequalities exist between them, particularly towards the indigenous communities and other minorities that are spread throughout the country. Together they result in a lack of citizenship, adding new difficulties for the many displaced people, who mainly fled from the countryside to the cities. My project concentrates itself around the most vulnerable group of this long history of violence: the children, with a focus on the notion of citizenship and the social-spatial qualities that it requires. The project will attempt to become a system -combining living and educational functions- that could function in many different sites while being inspired by the wealth of the Colombian nature, landscapes and local customs. The main concept of the design is to reconstruct families in order to offer a permanent home to the children in vulnerable situations where “the school can be put within the home”, as would have said Maria Montessori.

Beauty of Holland: Materials

Beauty of Holland: Materials

Tim Jongerius

Holland possesses a lot of beauty. Beauty in the flat stretched landscapeswhere ninety percent of the view is air and clouds, beauty in the purpleheathland with its sandy hills and flats, beauty in its beaches and dunescovered in pale tinted grasses, beauty in the rolling hills further to the south.The landscape has a lot of variety, caused by nature or the hands of man. Still I find this variety hard to find in the build environment. In my observation the build environment doesn’t reflect the landscape well. There is no obvious build to landscape relation, even though the Dutch landscapes offer geological differences and differences in plants and animals. This ought to translate to a noticeable variety in materials?

EXPLORE LAB REUNION

EXPLORE LAB REUNION

Ruth Lanting

I’m working for Housing Association Ymere in Amsterdam. As a district supervisor for Osdorp I’m working on increased livability in an urban renewal area. I haven’t been aware, but actually this is closely related to my research during graduation four years ago. I graduated on improving sanitary facilities in Mumbai. For this project, as well as for my current job, it’s all about improved living conditions for vulnerable groups. I loved the possibility to follow my personal fascinations during X-Lab. The fun time of freely exploring also helped me to give direction to my working live afterwards.

Explore lab reunion

Explore lab reunion

Renske van Dieren

How do you experience your environment as you get older? This is the question where my two fascinations meet each other: architecture and elderly people. In my graduation project I researched the (care) needs of people with dementia in relation to their living environment. This research can be used as a guideline for designers who want to build for people with dementia.

In this graduation study I experienced that too many questions are approached from the perspective of the discipline in which one operates. I believe the aging issues needs an integral approach. I’d like to make the translation between the different disciplines. Furthermore I’d like to specialize as an architect in the elderly healthcare.
To achieve this, I’m an architect at Lengkeek architecten en ingenieurs and at the same time I study Applied Gerontology at the Windesheim Zwolle, using the UfD-Marina van Dammegrant I won in 2013. In this way I surround myself with people from different fields, to explore together the social developments around aging in the (near) future. With this I hope to move forward in the design and building for and together with elderly.

Evolving School

Evolving School

Hans Vlaskamp

Vague title, I know. Still have to get it out of vagueness. But to give an idea of what’s happening;

You all know how the digital sphere is taking over our lives. Some people can’t seem get their eyes of their phones. In schools it is the same. That’s why most schools forbid mobile devices. Which is a shame, because there are tremendous opportunities with that technology. So the kids, without their regular dose of sensory input, are in the back of the class bored out of their mind. Nothing new there.
John asked me if I considered that school was not supposed to be fun, but a place to learn that doing things you don’t like is part of life. So I considered it, and concluded that I don’t agree. Schools should be fun! Kids should learn at an early age that learning can be fun.

With all that said, I’m setting out to design a high-school that will change the way our kids will learn. Blended learning will not only change the classroom, but also create more time for social gatherings. Exciting times.

Nb. This text is more a filling of empty space than a good representation of my research direction.

Architecture and Video Games

Architecture and Video Games

Simon Tiemersma

A re-design for the Den Haag Megastores using Video Game theory in process and design.

The Poetics of Sacred Places

The Poetics of Sacred Places

Mieke Vink

Mieke Vink_1353470_plafond

The impact of 3D printing on architecture

The impact of 3D printing on architecture

Tiwánee van der Horst

Changes are taking place globally and locally; the critical situation of global economics and the increased fragility of society have shifted focus towards more concrete and problematic issues of today. Such as the growing need for urban housing and environmental change. It brings about change in environmentally ethical attitudes of the architect towards the available materials, resulting in a synergetic new architecture. This change in itself is not new. But, I will continue the rethought of the Arts and Crafts Movement through emerging technologies, which might open doors to new architecture for future urban dwellers in an environmentally conscious way. Therefore, I will research and design new ways of urban living from an architectural perspective driven by 21st century technological and material developments. By proposing architectural solutions with 3D printing and bio plastic I seek to elicit a reaction in the field of engineering and material science in order to accelerate developments towards a circular economy.

 

 

‘Terminal Architecture’

‘Terminal Architecture’

Tom Thijssen

My fascination lays in the social and emotional functioning of our surroundings. The ‘favourite place’ is central in this fascination; in a world becoming more homogeneous everyday, distinction from one place to another, and consequently affection for one place specific, may become more difficult.  I have a special connection with the word and the idea: ‘place’. This started in my bachelor, (landscape architecture) and is very well noticeable throughout the projects that i did during my master. (architecture)

My final project at the TU Delft led me to the question: ‘How can people find a  place to stay and wander in an airfield ?’ Since airfields are built for maximum cost and time efficiency all valuable minutes before flight are used seducing the already stressed traveller into spending just a bit more. In my opinion nothing is more ugly than capitalism under pressure. Ofcourse i am open for discussion.

Additionally believe that a very big part of the experience is also determined by the fact that every individual is considered a potential criminal. You actually feel relieved after you have been approved of ‘not being of criminal intent’ so allowed passage in to the ‘limbo-zone’ in between the security and the gate. [air-side]  The security zone within the airport can be seen as a rudimentary element that has the remembrance of less friendly times , left there in place as fall-back mechanism. You never know what might happen if one abandons this last threshold.  The combination of this controlled environment and the financial stress in which it is created results in an inhuman place.

So what is the deal with terminals: is it political? Is it economical? Is it aesthetics?

Train stations aren’t as inhuman compared to airports. There is a romanticism associated to a train station, especially if it is a large one,monumental and imposing, situated in the centre of a big town. It puts you in touch with the world around you, and travel by train is a truly dignified way of moving around. I aim for a more grandeuse aesthetic design of the terminal.A higher level of convenience and happiness. But above all i want to design a terminal that offers a place that evokes a serenity that suits the magic of flight..

My research is focussed on ‘the staying in an airport’, it aims for defining and redefining of the current idea of ‘the Terminal’. The research will include various airports within the region of UK, Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany. [Both typological and historical]

My research commences with a broad study, from the ‘architecture of waiting’ to the dynamic of the airports lobby, secondly it separate and organizes the results into categories of ‘quality of waiting’ and ‘quality of wandering’. Thirdly I aspire to reach out for other ‘terminal architecture’ typologies [such as the train-station] hoping to collect and study references of different interesting types of ‘waiting rooms’, ‘lobby’s and ‘shops’.

 

For more info check Tumblr:

http://bikecollectornr1.tumblr.com/

 

Poetics in the ordinary

Poetics in the ordinary

Eke Wondaal

“A building should be a shell around the life to be lived within it, a shell that will satisfy material as well as intellectual demands. The architect creates not life, but conditions for life.”  (Kay Fisker, 1947)

Participatory methods in Architectural Design:
 Building up belonging and identity 
in deprived urban areas.

Participatory methods in Architectural Design:
 Building up belonging and identity 
in deprived urban areas.

Mar Muñoz Aparici

I am fascinated by the power of citizen participation in architectural design. In general terms, citizens only have a limited influence in the standard design process which is usually lead by administration and coordinated by private parties.

How would stronger involvement of inhabitants affect the existing process? What would the effect be in their group interaction and their connection to the built environment? Could these synergies develop a neighborhood’s identity?

Research on participatory initiatives both in urbanism and architecture will bring up the main achievements and challenges of these methods and will enlighten the voids for further personal research. The conclusions from that investigation will be the foundations for a design proposal of a public building in the neighborhood of Nazaret in Valencia (Spain). This devalued coastal area lost its connection with the sea -literally and metaphorically- along with the port’s growth until reaching a depressed problematic status. Its increasing lack of identity feeling would allow me to test out my findings and see what is the effect both for the people and for the design.

The model that will emerge from my project could be a powerful tool for designers and planners to re-conceive the creation of public values by empowering civic society.

How to involve different stakeholders in the design process?

How to involve different stakeholders in the design process?

Heleen van Russen Groen

Our built environment doesn’t always respond to the use requirements of different users. That could be caused by different things. First of all the users of a building change or their needs change, but I think there is also a lack of knowledge sharing between the architect and the (future) user. There is a gap between those two.

The interest in participatory design increases. For example in the renovation of social housing: In this case a certain percentage of the residents has to agree to let the renovation continue, what makes it very interesting for the housing association to let the residents participate. The thing is that when we have a closer look at these design processes, most of the time there isn’t much real participation. Where de architect traditionally came up with only one solution, now he/she comes up with a couple of design solutions. The resident can only choose color. In other words: in the design process the user may help to choose an option, but he isn’t allowed to help making the options.

How to involve different stakeholders in the design process? How to let a layman participate in the design process? How to become aware and use the knowledge of the user expert?

Critical Regionalism: Balancing tradition and Modernity in Moroccan housing

Critical Regionalism: Balancing tradition and Modernity in Moroccan housing

Salima Benaissa

My fascination for social housing in Morocco started by seeing the differences each year while travelling to this country. The large scale contemporary housing projects are becoming more common each year without the projects being designed for its environment. This contemporary architecture is problematic because it does not fit in the environment and the culture of the country, which is not only the case in Morocco but in a huge part of the second and third world countries. In order to create a sustainable type of housing in these areas it is important to understand the local circumstances of the country and the area that is built in. These aspects all fall under the term critical regionalism, a term that will play a huge role in finding the right way of designing balanced housing in Morocco.

 

(re-)considering the Bank of England

(re-)considering the Bank of England

Loed Stolte

For my graduation in explore lab, I want to combine two fascinations of mine, the one very old and the other fairly recent: classicism and capitalism. Therefor, my project concerns an architectural reconsideration of the main building of the Bank of England, located in the hart of the City of London. Given the current dispute about the functioning of the banking sector and the monetary system on the one hand and, on the other, the continuing question how to deal with heritage as designers, I believe my project to be at the hart of current processes, both in society and in the discipline of architecture.

 

Past

The Bank of England is the world’s oldest central bank and has for centuries been one of the major institutions in (inter)national capitalism. The Bank’s building has a uniquely rich architectural history, which coincides generally with the development of capitalism through its different stages. Two crucial episodes in the buildings history are its expansion under the supervision of Robert Taylor and most famously John Soane in the late eighteenth century, roughly during the lifetime of Adam Smith, and its rebuilding by Herbert Baker, commenced during the Great Depression of 1928.

 

Present

Now, in the aftermath of the credit crisis of 2008, the consequences of the last big bust in our global financial system are still being suffered throughout the world. It is in Great Britain that both economists and activists at the moment take the lead regarding a serious reconsideration of the monetary system, or: the origin of money, that is underlying capitalism. And, therefor, also the Bank of England, responsible for Britain’s monetary policy, is critically being evaluated and alternative roles are being suggested. However, meanwhile its building history has stultified since the end of the War.

 

Future

My project concerns the architectural manifestation of a renewed Bank of England within the future reinvention of capitalism and central banking. As the awareness of the necessity of a fundamental reorganization of the monetary system grows, I consider this the occasion to re-establish the lost connection between the Bank’s architecture and the development of capitalism. It is therefor that I do not intend to start from a utopian tabula rasa condition, proposing an entirely new design, but rather want to rework the existing building, which, likewise current capitalism, is just the temporary result of a complex process of historic alterations.

A social incubator

A social incubator

Veerle Rigter

I am fascinated by the potential of architecture to (re)connect people. How to create an inviting place for exchange of experience, knowledge, matter and space that could be beneficial for all?

Since 90% of our society will be living in cities in the future and there is a shortage of space, resources and finance, sharing spaces and services could offer a solution. In a society where individualism and loneliness are considered a serious problem  for the future , I personally think people would benefit from a social environment where an exchange of knowledge, space and goods is possible.

Nowadays, a shift from the individual to the collective can be seen in our current society, from ownership to usage. People don’t necessarily want to possess items or services anymore, as long as they can use them when wanted. This sharing of matters or services requires a certain adaptation of lifestyle. I would like to investigate to which extend matter, services and spaces are sharable, how this influences the lifestyle of its users and derived from this, how architecture can stimulate a positive attitude towards the sharing of space and services and thus create an inviting place for exchange.

 

Castle of Good Hope

Castle of Good Hope

Benjo Zwarteveen

In 2009 I visited the “Castle of Good Hope”, a Dutch fortress in Capetown’s city centre, built around 1670. The coming year I want to research what value South Africa and its people give to the Dutch heritage in SA.

In the design which follows the research, I want to investigate how I can make a design which is of importance for Capetown or South Africa. I’m thinking about designing a memorial space, a community space, a building for the national archives, a national museum for colonial heritage, depending on the outcome of the research.

Integrating Street Vendors in Jakarta’s Streetscape

Integrating Street Vendors in Jakarta’s Streetscape

Esti Tichelaar

Project description

Urban infill of the train station area in Apeldoorn

Urban infill of the train station area in Apeldoorn

Herman van Essen

With the urbanization of Apeldoorn (NL), a major part of the original fabric has been replaced by buildings that give an air of anonymity. In no way do these buildings harmonize with the historic buildings or, more generally speaking, with the remains of human civilization. In the small urban infill of the train station area, I had the opportunity to present an alternative view on the urbanization of Apeldoorn.Following the principles of New Urbanism (or any traditional place in The Netherlands), the urban plan comprises a dense neighborhood fully orientated on the pedestrian. Central to this plan is the pedestrian route which leads from the tower, over the station square, through the colonnade in the public garden, past the almshouse and the church, to the heart of Apeldoorn. As in any traditional neighborhood there is a mixed use of apartments, single family homes, old people’s flats (almshouse), shops, cafés and restaurants. Latter three are to be found on corners and along the station square, articulating these important places through terraces, verandahs and arcades.

The peripheral hub

The peripheral hub

Joris Berkhout

The growing city is slowly transformed into a vast urban conglomeration, its limits defined only by whatever its network of infrastructure can support. This design project addresses this condition. It specifically deals with a peripheral node, a transport hub on a non-urban location, a location where topographical place has become irrelevant. The site is developed as a place centered around the transport hub. Characterized by large infrastructures and ample of available space the peripheral hub provides and excellent location to facilitate modern metropolitan functions such as stadiums, festival sites, shopping malls and large-scale entertainment.The architecture of the station symbolizes its position between a local place and a node as part of a network. The design seeks to enhance their confrontation. In plan the layout is formed by a loop, which organizes the flows of passengers and at the same time marks the division between place and node. Within the loop the functions of the station as a node are concentrated, not only the train platforms but also the commercial program of generic shops and restaurants. On the other hand the exterior of the loop is defined by the characteristics of the place such as the waterfront and a sequence of public spaces.

The development of a retirement community

The development of a retirement community

Jim van Oord

Enjoyable living @ Pagediepdal is a research into the implementation of an active retirement community in the Netherlands. Similar developments can be found around the world. To implement such a concept into the Dutch market it was essential to get to know who the target group is and what happens to them as they grow older. It is also essential to have insight in the government policies regarding seniors. These aspects together with a precedent study are explored by the means of a literature survey, and form the background information for the research. The lack of information about the specific subject made it essential to gather a greater understanding of the target group in the Netherlands. The target group of 3rd age seniors is a specific group of people. The main aim of the research was to get to know who they were and what their needs, wishes and requirements are. This research was done by means of conducting a focus group, visiting a retirement community in Australia, interviewing residents and consulting a number of different professionals. The background information gathered in the first part of the research formed the framework for the interviews. The professionals that were interviewed were a housings specialist in the Province of Groningen, a project developer specialized in the development of senior housing concepts and a housing and care specialist. The combination of professional insight into the field of study and the communication with the target group itself provides a balanced perspective on the information gathered.

The benign of the city

Elsbeth, Lilith & Lieke

The metamorphosis of the coolsingel; or the benign of the city

Architecture has the habit of arriving too late and staying far too long. This final-year project steps off from the paradox between the slowness of what is built and the transience of use. The metamorphosis of Coolsingel, or the benign demolition of the City examines the essence of architectural metamorphosis. It uses metamorphosis to confront the consequences of a pointless hypothesis in an urban setting that in turn burdens us with the question of architecture’s autonomy.

Metamorphosis is the poetic equivalent of transformation. Unlike transformation, metamorphosis marks the onset of a seemingly pointless change. In this project the subject of metamorphosis is Coolsingel in Rotterdam. By extrapolating the essence of Coolsingel, the boulevard alters from a highway to a runway. To make a space for the planes, the area around Coolsingel transforms into an airport. When the planes leave the city Coolsingel will return in a new guise.

The rebirth of Coolsingel gives it the guise of a contemplative space. The beauty peculiar to the newly created space lies in the paradox between the wholesale clearance of the street and the compaction of the built fabric round about. The facade’s explicit formal idiom with its openings for gateways and loggias reconsiders the characteristics of an architectural urbanity not designed to a specific programme.

The backstage of Buenos Aires

The backstage of Buenos Aires

Kria Djoyoadhiningrat

The objective of this project is to revitalize the urban area along the Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires with a small-scale architectural intervention by triggering a positive chain reaction. To generate this chain reaction a start has to be made with addressing and improving the current situation of the Riachuelo environment and by reintegrating different social classes.
Buenos Aires has neglected the Riachuelo and its waterfront for many years. This river has become a toxic sewer whose waterfront is characterised by poverty and impoverishment. At the same time, for many of the poor in Buenos Aires, collecting and selling recyclable garbage is the only way to make a living. Originally a by-product of economic misery, these cartoneros have now become an integral part of Buenos Aires’ streetscapes. The invented programme is a recycling hub: an intertwined mixture of a recyclables collecting station and an information centre targeted at other Porteños (inhabitants of Buenos Aires). Here cartoneros sell recyclables that they collect, the materials then being transported to several recycling factories. In the information centre Porteños can experience the very valuable way cartoneros deal with waste products and learn how they themselves can contribute to a cleaner environment.
The building is conceived as a harbour crane, a robust building and a powerful gesture next to an old railway bridge connecting the two riverbanks. The hovering volume defines the collecting station underneath and houses the supporting programme for cartoneros and the information centre itself.

Sustainable housing in Cambodia

Sustainable housing in Cambodia

Linda Buijsman

Cambodia
25% of Phnom Penh’s population lives on an average family income of $1 per day. The city lacks any kind of affordable housing, pushing the population into informal housing. During the last two decades a lot of these informal settlements were destroyed and the inhabitants were forced to move to a new location, a resettlement site. This project describes a sustainable, affordable and self-reliant answer to the housing demand in resettlement locations in Cambodia taking the fundamental needs into account.

The research resulted in a list of requirements for the design assignment in three main topics: sustainable, affordable and self-reliant. A ‘Sustainable’ projects takes people, (dignity, cultural aspects, health, participation, safe living environment, responding to future growth of community); the economics, (affordability, micro credits, business opportunities in the house, trade possibilities in the community) and ecological issues (local materials, autonomy in watersupply, reuse of materials to reduce costs and waste) into account.

An ‘affordable’ house of $ 2000 includes basic facilities to create a healthy and stately living environment. The last aspect, self-reliant, has more than one meaning in this project; self-reliance of the community within the cities society. The participation during the initiative and building process of this project isaimed to result in a sense of ownership and a more assertive attitude of the community. The second meaning of self-reliant clarifies the possibility to run the community independently from the city, in the matter of facilities, jobs, energy and water.

Sustainable housing for lower income groups in Bolivia

Sustainable housing for lower income groups in Bolivia

Rinske Wessels

For this graduation project, three major researches have taken place: An architectural research into design criteria, an urban research into the urban development of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia) and a construction research to sustainable building materials which are accessible for the lower income groups in this city.
From the architectural research 13 design criteria were defined: Constructability, Extendibility, Sustainable water use, Facilitate economic activity, Developing houses with the community, Create neighbourhood relations, User friendly, Basic comfort, Low cost, Cradle to cradle, Minimal pollution, Optimal use of materials and Generate a future value. With de design criteria a basis house is developed and the need of growing horizontally as well as vertically is incorporated.
Based on the urban research the houses needed to be placed on the front of the parcel to create a clear distinction between the public and the private areas. Within the design of the basic house a semi-public space functioning as the living room in integrated. This space has the potential to be used for income generating activities. Through the years the street with become more diverse, because of vertical extensions and different economical activities.
From the construction research resulted that bamboo is a very sustainable and innovative building material. The bamboo stems are joined with a 3mm thick steel wire, also known as the “Delft wire lacing technique”. The jointing technique quality experiments showed that the bamboo stems slip away. Therefore the bamboo construction is build up with the Chinese method for bamboo building.

Sustainable emergency housing solutions for the Netherlands

Sustainable emergency housing solutions for the Netherlands

Sietze Meijer

In the light of climate change and rising costs of climate change impact reduction it is imperative to examine the effects of climate change on the built environment. Assuming a worst case scenario for rising sea levels the consequences and solutions for the existing built environment in the town “Kruiningen” in the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands with high flood risks are explored.
The consequences of flooding for the existing built environment in this region were investigated and, following a resilience-strategy, a proposal was done to cope with the external changes. 50 % of the existing buildings, 2-storey row housing from the 1970’s, were equipped with two different kinds of building extensions and additional supply of essential non-food items such as solar boiler photovoltaic system, compost toilet, etc. Also, a major addition to current local emergency response policy was proposed. Within the area a network of crisis centers was established in existing communal centers like schools, sports clubs and stores. These shelter refugees, local coordination of emergency responsethey form a distribution network for food and non-food items, to supply inhabitants of the adapted buildings.
The adaptation of the existing built environment should not only allow it to overcome disaster, but also enhances the quality of the area in non-disaster times. This would justify a major investment in adapting the existing built environment. The resilience approach offers a strategy reducing dependence on finite sources. Thus resilience is proposed as an alternative approach to climate change of which sustainability is a derivative.

Splash Mumbai

Splash Mumbai

Ruth Lanting

Geopolitical boundaries define us as statist territorialized beings. Abandoning the state territory is a breach of the social contract. Fragile political states may cause displacement of populations, when these are forced to cross physical borders for political, economical, social, or environmental reasons. There are 42 million displaced persons in the world. The United Nations Refugee Agency strives for voluntary repatriation to a home country, resettlement in another country or permanent integration in the country of asylum.
The spatial result of the problematic political status of the refugee is manifested in reactive urbanism and temporary architectural solutions. The case of Burma, one of the largest source countries of displaced persons, was the topic of this thesis and was researched in a field study on its Thai border. Parallel to the 150000 official refugees residing in camps for over 25 years, there are another estimated 2 million unregistered Burmese illegally living and working in Thai factories in the porous border area.
The project proposes an extraterritorial settlement in the river that serves as a border between the two countries. The economic catalyst for such a settlement would be a garment factory housed in a parasitic bamboo structure suspended under the existing ‘friendship’ bridge. The urban layout on the riverbed is determined by sanitation units provided by NGOs. These concrete water towers cum bathhouses form a grid onto which makeshift houses can latch on, creating intimate courtyards

Spaces of social activism

Spaces of social activism

Cigdem Sivri

The analysis of public sphere which is on the edge of being demolished by the interests of investors, and the discovery of international and local initiatives that emerged to preserve the democratic values of public spaces and facilitate them at the same time, generated the fascination to form a public space where individual dreams can be discovered, realized and moulded into collective actions. The program of a Creative Center in Brussels is formed by placing expression, discussions and the creative power of local art, crafts and skills in the central place. This social center is aimed to let individuals discover their capabilities and interests, and at the end progress from the individual to collective.The Creative Center is placed in the western urban context of Brussels which is relatively neglected physically and socially. The project is part of an urban scenario as an intervention in the city, and the experiment field of a light research at the same time. The atelier-dwelling typology of the district is kept as the basis for generating the spaces. Additional functions are inserted in the typology just like squatting the voids of the typology. Architectural research of this fascination focuses on the spaces of self-discovery, encounter and expression. Light has been one of the most important considerations to form the space within this dense typology to allow users focus on their self-learning, materials and the products. Repetitive units are considered as rough bulks carved out with the consideration of use and light.

Shape grammar in architectural design

Shape grammar in architectural design

Nina Verkerk

Shape grammar is a system based on a basic shape and the recursive application of a set of transformational shape rules. With those shape rules, different new shapes in the same language can be created. The system of shape grammar is discovered in the seventies by G. Stiny and J. Gips, and further developed by different engineers over the past years.

Current use of shape grammars in architectural design can be distinguished in four stages [image: projectstructure.jpg]: (1) analyzing an existing building or style by creating a specific grammar, (2) develop a new (generic) grammar by adapting the found specific grammar, (3) create design variations in the same language, and at last (4) develop a new specific design based on those grammars. Most research has been put into the first stage, by developing specific grammars. I will focus on a generic understanding of theorem of shape grammar for the application in architectural design process. Therefore, my research focusses onto the analyzing and comparing of different existing shape grammars and the translation into a generic system. The grammars I analyze and compare are: the grammar for the Palladian Villa’s by G. Stiny, the grammarfor the Queen Anne houses by U. Flemming, the Frank Lloyd Wright Prairy Houses grammar by H. Koning and J. Eizenberg, and finally the grammar for the Siza houses at Malagueira by J.P. Duarte.

I test the generic system into my own design process for a Montessori College in Amersfoort (the Netherlands). My focus is to translate the local conditions and design qualities into shape rules, and systematically create variations of designs in the same language.

School for Digital Design

School for Digital Design

Sander Mulders

Digital design and manufacturing is becoming more and more important in the design process. The integration of digital design tools is not bound to one specific practice; it can be found in various design fields amongst which automotive, aerospace, product and building design. An improvement in one field can influence the other fields.There is a need for more research and better education in this field, current educational facilities at the TU Delft are not fit for this purpose. Therefore the new facility, “SCHOOL FOR DIGITAL DESIGN”, which can be used by all faculties (and design fields), can lead to the much needed improvement. At this moment the understanding of digital tools can do is very limit partly due to the abstract level of the computer models, showing physical in combination with digital models can increase this understanding. The building creates an environment where the different disciplines can interact and learn from each other. Furthermore the building creates the possibility to exhibit what digital techniques can do by the integration of exhibition space but also the building itself is designed using various computational tools and therefor is a display of the various advantages of using digital tools. During the graduation process the steps taken in the design process, combined with the tools created, are combined into a thesis entitled “Digital Design Tools”.

Rotterdam got a heart again

Rotterdam got a heart again

Pim van Meer

The images have to speak for themselves

Rotterdam the city without a heart got a heart again

Permanent Temporality

Permanent Temporality

Tim Hilhorst

Office vacancy is an ordinary matter. Just after completion, at the turn of tenants or around a relocation vacancy is inescapable. A healthy vacancy should fluctuates around 4 to 8 percent (Benraad, 2012). However, office vacancy has increased tremendously over the past years. Optimists say the office market will pick up its pace once again, increasingly more others are less optimistic. Even if the market will resurrect still a large portion of the current stock will remain vacant. If you have the total amount of vacant square meters and divide that by the average of 15 m2 for an employee in an office, you would have over half a million workstations available. That’s not even the amount of job-seekers, let alone that people want to be flexible workers. Too much vacancy can lead to degradation and a bad business climate. Many (PhD-)students, (local) government(s), municipalities and companies are dealing with office vacancy. Therefore, there is already a great body of knowledge about the topic. To get a grip on the current situation of structural office vacancy, many research papers and master thesis papers have been read. This chapter aims to compile the most relevant information to structure and narrow down my field of interest more concerning the topic of office vacancy.

Problem Statement
Office vacancy is a growing problem in the Netherlands. In the first half of 2012, office vacancy continued to grow to 7,62 million square meters, 15,4% of the total office stock. Demographic trends (decrease of the workforce), changing ways of working (telecommuting), decreasing immigration and technological innovations (continued automation) may give an even bigger rise to a strong reduction in demand for office space. The situation is clear that office vacancy is an enormous challenge, and opportunity, for brokerage.

To help the research in the right direction, a research question was formulated: what standardized, sustainable dwelling system will help Dutch municipalities and brokers to revitalize vacant office buildings? The main research question has been narrowed down into several subquestions: what are the (financial) pluses and minuses associated with vacant office transformation? What is a smart target group to invest in keeping office transformation in mind? What are the criteria for a vacant office building to be transformed with the designed solution? How can such office transformation be done in a sustainable way?

Goal
The goal of this project would be to design an architectural intervention that proposes a sustainable solution to the increasing problem of structural vacancy. The proposed architectural intervention aims to be an approach that can be applied to an office building with certain standard sizes in the Netherlands. It will contribute to the demand for (sustainable) housing for students and starters, consistent with the current demand from the market.
The research will be divided in an introduction to the topic of structural office vacancy, what kind of statistics, difficulties and opportunities are associated with it. This will be researched by reading the body of information that has already dealt with this topic. My research will focus more on the architectural side of office transformation to dwellings, but this introduction will give the much needed background information.
My research will support the design solution I intend to propose. To come up with the best design requirements the research will dive into the subjects of (office) transformation, flexibility & sustainability, student housing and sales strategy. In the field of office transformation, the research will describe the pros and cons of transformation, what kind initiatives have been taken up, standardization and sustainable transformation. The target group will be analyzed for suitability for office transformation and to be able to make a user-based design, to have more chance of making a project salable. This will be researched by case studies. Furthermore, the topic of sustainability should play a important role in the final design. Making a building flexible in terms of program, adds to this issue. Therefore flexibility will be researched by literature study about i.a. adaptive construction, metabolism, Habraken and solids. This research will lead to a set of guidelines for the architectural intervention. The standardized project should be salable towards municipalities and building owners. The intention is to build a presentation website for the architectural intervention. The architectural intervention will be, by means of a case study, applied and tested to the ‘Pionier’-building in the Hague, which is nominated for transformation by the DuraVermeer Lab.
The project goal is to give a architectural solution on four levels of sustainability. Namely the reuse of structural vacant office buildings, creating a sustainable architectural interventions, involving the user in making sustainable choices and lastly inspiring the community by creating a pilot project to inspire and persuade people to act (see image below).
Process
The method of research will come down to a literature study and case studies selected per topic. The gathered information will form a set of guidelines for the master thesis design. The literature study will gather sufficient information about (office) transformation, flexibility & sustainability, student housing and sales strategy. The next buildings are selected for the case study based on the subjects treated in the literature study and will be analyzed with the aim of extracting design guidelines for the final design.

Case study projects
Sustainable transformation projects:
– Kraaijvanger – Provinciekantoor Noord-Holland
– De Zwarte Hond – GasTerra kantoor, Groningen
Office vacancy projects:
– Mulderblauw architecten – Holiday Inn Express hotel / Papendorp, Utrecht
– Karina Benraad – Voormalig ACTA-gebouw / Amsterdam
Student housing projects:
– Vera Yanovshtchinsky Architecten B.V. – De Rotterdamseweg 139 / DUWO
– Jacoba van Beierenlaan / my former student house / Korvezee. What makes a student house ‘successful’?

Literature and general practical preference
The subjects of (office) transformation, flexibility & sustainability, student housing and sales strategy with be research by literature study. The research topics are: office transformation, standardization, sustainable transformation, student housing, flexibility, sustainability, adaptive construction, metabolism, Habraken and solids. The literature is to be found at the end of this document.

Reflection
The topic of office transformation was chosen specifically for its relevance in the larger social and scientific framework. Structural office vacancy is an increasing issue, and people will look for solutions more and more. With the adjusted Bouwbesluit, transformation has been made more attractive, however, it is important not to lose sight of sustainability in this process. The research consists of both theoretical and empirical studies. The gathered information will result in a set of guidelines that will be applied in the final design during the MSc4 part of the graduation track. The result of this design is intended to be applicable to multiple locations in the Netherlands. This rapport aims to support the design phase of my graduation thesis design by means of investigating i.e. the advantages and disadvantages financially, politically and structurally. Also, the research will touch upon my fascination for personalization and entrepreneurship to support the out-coming design. Therefore, I combine a very topical subject, namely vacant offices, with another topical subject, which is sustainability. Designing a sustainable solution for office vacancy could have a great deal of value to users and developers.

Palace prison Mietskaserne

Rolf Kuck

Childhood memories of farms in my home village close to Aachen../germany coincide with more recent experiences of visiting former factory buildings during my student days in Aachen: large building complexes surrounding at least one courtyard form a maze that invites to be discovered ‒ accessed through passages or giant gates. amazing.

RESEARCH
residential buildings with courtyards have a long history in a plethora of cultures. the typical Roman ‘domus’ type had 2 courtyards: the rather public ‘atrium’ courtyard and the rather private ‘peristyle’ courtyard with a small garden.
the Berlin Mietskaserne had up to 6 courtyards. with up to 2000 tenants on just 1 plot, the Mietskaserne of the early years of industrialisation is a symbol of misery.

‘palace prison Mietskaserne
Meyer’s Hof (*1875 Berlin † 1972 Berlin): misery vs. utopia’
the case study research illustrates desirable qualities that are widely overlooked in publications. courtyards played a vital role in establishing a ‘milieu’ ‒ the tenants’ social environment.

DESIGN
‘Docklands Yards’ is a prototypical adaption of a Berlin Mietskaserne envisioned to be erected on Amsterdam’s former shipyard area NDSM on the Northern shore of the Ij. similar to its infamous Berlin predecessors it ostensibly addresses the enormous housing shortage in the Randstad conurbation.However the main ambition of the project is to stimulate social cohesion by means of architecture.

Open source urbanism for Amsterdam

Open source urbanism for Amsterdam

Erik Courrier

Kiyoshi Seikei, world adventurer, uses modern materials such as steel and aluminum to craft Case Study like houses in post-war Japan. Kazuo Shinohara integrates traditional values into abstract concepts in three distinct design phases. Kazuanari Sakamoto designs inside-out, the outside expression results in everyday poetry. Bow-Wow takes an anecdotal approach depicting the smallest and most anecdotal functional mix-up present in Tokyo to inspire his designs.
The four successors of TokyoTech Architecture school develop and refine their dialogue between architecture and the city. Much like a living organism redetermining its contours over time, Tokyo’s hidden order can be read behind its chaotic and addictive appearance. The Asian city based of plot ownership is built from detached buildings shaped by a variety of urban rules such as built surface, floor space index and north side angle. Lets make space for architecture with detached urban planning! In my graduation project I propose extending Amsterdam North with a new approach to urbanism. A 200.000m2 former industrial ground is subdivided by means of a substrate logarithm creating a randomized and spontaneous urban plan. Main arteries are superimposed to the existing context to facilitate accessibility, and variously dense zones are employed next to a sports facility, marina and park. The goal is to create an independent multifunctional extension for Amsterdam that can work on its own.Each plot has to answer a set of urban regulations. In order to illustrate the development, all the built blocks are generated, and a strip of 5 buildings is designed on semi-public space. From right to left: a kindergarden school, an atelier-house, a multifunctional building, parking tower, and retail store.

Notes on the nature of informality

Notes on the nature of informality

Haris Heizanoglou

It was an attempt to approach and understand the dynamic nature of informal phenomena, having as an aim to build a theoretical framework, by re-asking fundamental questions and developing the necessary vocabulary and consciousness, in order to be able to support further research.

The basic scope under which the whole research was produced regards informality as the child of the coexistence of relations between technical and natural ends, therefore supports an approach where it will not be considered as a mere side-effect but rather as a natural condition.

It is precisely this natural and dynamic character that was used in the process of the research itself, which was produced as a constant and dynamic scaffolding. Research was building up theoretical scaffolds that in turn were used for building up more complex scaffolds and push the old ones to collapse, build up again and let collapse and so on, taking this process towards a fulfillment in the way which Aristoteles gives the name “entelechy”.

This is a process that doesn’t conclude because concluding is impossible by nature, by the nature of informality itself. Therefore this text should be considered as an instance, a part, of an evolutionary process and not something conclusive, it couldn’t have been and it consciously never intended to. I don’t have in my hands a complete theory or an answer to a problem. What I have is the record of my own attempt to transform my aesthesis into a gnosis and translate my abstract feeling about things into knowledge that can be communicated and developed further.

Nomads in Noman’s Land

Nomads in Noman’s Land

Laura van Santen

Geopolitical boundaries define us as statist territorialized beings. Abandoning the state territory is a breach of the social contract. Fragile political states may cause displacement of populations, when these are forced to cross physical borders for political, economical, social, or environmental reasons. There are 42 million displaced persons in the world. The United Nations Refugee Agency strives for voluntary repatriation to a home country, resettlement in another country or permanent integration in the country of asylum.

The spatial result of the problematic political status of the refugee is manifested in reactive urbanism and temporary architectural solutions. The case of Burma, one of the largest source countries of displaced persons, was the topic of this thesis and was researched in a field study on its Thai border. Parallel to the 150000 official refugees residing in camps for over 25 years, there are another estimated 2 million unregistered Burmese illegally living and working in Thai factories in the porous border area.

The project proposes an extraterritorial settlement in the river that serves as a border between the two countries. The economic catalyst for such a settlement would be a garment factory housed in a parasitic bamboo structure suspended under the existing ‘friendship’ bridge. The urban layout on the riverbed is determined by sanitation units provided by NGOs. These concrete water towers cum bathhouses form a grid onto which makeshift houses can latch on, creating intimate courtyards.

Museum Vlaardingen ‘Aring uit Vlârding’

Museum Vlaardingen ‘Aring uit Vlârding’

Liselotte van der A

During my graduation I worked on the restoration and extension of the redershuis (ship owner’s house) “Huis met den Lindeboom” in the historic context of Vlaardingen: “Museum Vlaardingen – ‘Aring uit Vlârding”.
Researching the city centre, I noticed that the buildings from the prosperous time of herring fishery are currently underutilised and unattractive; this is also the case for the redershuis, a local museum. A museum is a recognisable institution with social-economical-cultural benefits, but neither the museum nor the building stands out. This is also because Vlaardingen is not attracting enough visitors.
In my opinion this all has to do with lack of clarity, recognisability, identity (helderheid, herkenbaarheid, identiteit); memory plays a large role as well.
In my design a route takes the visitors to the new and larger museum, a combination of redershuizen and warehouses and a new, visible entrance building (warehouses-like). Inside, the floor gently slopes to the back level: here a new hall (warehouses-like again) is built where buildings used to be. The construction consists of a simple yet complex whole of wooden (ships! herring tonnes!) columns and (edge) beams; the façade comprises of vertical strips of wood and glass. Old warehouses are inside the hall, dividing the space and reemphasising memory. Inside the old redershuis, style rooms can be found, where different restored interiors show the history. Emphasis is put on visitor experience, routing, climate and sustainability.
This all makes the museum the most important historical institution of Vlaardingen with architecture with clarity, recognisability and identity.

Modernizing Beijing / X-ploded Siheyuan

Modernizing Beijing / X-ploded Siheyuan

Rutger Kuipers

By modernizing the city, Beijing is upgrading to a higher level of prosperity. At the same time though we see the reverse side of a global development, the interventions in the city ruin parts of the city by destroying its traditional architecture, in particular the traditional hutong-areas, which are one of the main characteristics of this city, and which carry a long history of Beijing’s ancient life and architecture.
My interest is mainly concerned within a dilemma of upgrading Beijing to a modern wealthy city on the one hand and on the other hand destroying part of its tradition. How could an architect operate within a dilemma like this? Does the architect need to choose the one or the other position or is there a possible solution to a new architecture which embeds the local traditions? My goal is to find the latter: architecture that embeds local tradition.
The project is, ideally, situated on the border of the Tiananmen Square and the Dazhalan hutong area. It consists of separate commercial/housing units on ground level (connected below ground level). On the urban scale I tried to find a transition between the two highly contrasting urban spaces, introducing an informal urban typology with adjacent squares rather then streets or large open spaces. On the scale of one unit I reinterpreted the horizontal scheme of the traditional Beijing courtyard house into a vertical housing unit. One of the traditional elements I implemented, in a defamiliarizated way, was the iceray system of typical Chinese lattice design.

Mirages of easy virtue

Mirages of easy virtue

Elbert Arens

My project is situated on the naval base at the Oosterdok in the centre of Amsterdam. Besides the historical references of sailors and prostitutes, the fact that the Royal Navy plans to leave this base seemed fitting for my utopian design. The site is considered as a tabula rasa, with the exception of the Scheepvaartmuseum, and is attached to the surrounding urban fabric with new entrance roads and housing blocks.
Using passages and descriptions of an architectural or urban nature from five different literary sources, my design evolved into five courtyards that resembled the world in which the characters from these literary sources thrived. At the centre of this is the panoptic brothel ‘Le Parthénion’ (Rétif de la Bretonne 1769) that combines the workspaces for the prostitutes with the continuing surveillance of the law, health inspectors and tax offices. At ground level visitors for the museum are redirected to the courtyards where the symbolic presence of the five main characters is felt, but where the actual architectural form is used for dwellings, cafés, hotels, shops and offices. The enclosed world of the courtyards is completely separated from the outside residential neighbourhood. After opening hours the parks, canals and squares form a permanent décor for the residents. A 18th century palace courtyard with façade, a 19th century outline of the Opera Garnier, a segment of a 20th century Amsterdam canal, a roofless cathedral and to remember the Wallen as they once were: a piece of the Old Church square.

Literaire benadering in de architectuur

Literaire benadering in de architectuur

Laura Theng

Architectuur en literatuur. Twee verschillende werelden. Echter, beide houden zich bezig met het creëren van sfeer, van een bepaalde beleving. Kan een literaire benadering, waarbij instrumenten uit de literatuur gebruikt worden, ook binnen het architectonisch ontwerp een rol spelen?
Uit een aantal romans heb ik literaire elementen afgeleid, die relevant kunnen zijn binnen de architectuur. Elementen zoals dialoog, verhaallijn en vertelperspectief. Vervolgens heb ik onderzocht hoe deze elementen in architectonische projecten terug te vinden zijn. Deze projecten waren allen een treinstation: een station en het reizen passen goed in de wereld van de literatuur. Het architectonisch ontwerp dat zal volgen is een fictief treinstation in een fictieve stad.
Om een beeld te krijgen van de beleving die mensen van een station hebben, heb ik een kort verhaal over een treinreis en een station geschreven en verschillende mensen gevraagd een stuk te schrijven aan de hand van dit verhaal, vanuit een zelfverkozen perspectief. Om de beleving in elk verhaal om te zetten naar architectonische ruimte heb ik van de verhalen abstracte modellen gemaakt. Elementen als perspectief, contrast, licht, (contra)vorm en textuur komen hierin naar voren. Deze literaire benadering heeft geleid tot een architectonisch ontwerp vol verhaallijnen, ontmoetingen en verrassingen. Elke stap in het gebouw weer anders. Er zijn plekken gecreëerd waar verwachte maar ook zeker ook onverwachte gebeurtenissen kunnen plaatsvinden. Plekken om te wachten, te lezen, te praten of juist om te zwijgen. Er ontstaan steeds verschillende verhaallijnen, die elkaar ontmoeten en weer verlaten, tussen de verschillende gebruikers, maar ook tussen de gebruiker en het gebouw.

In Favour of Spontaneous Urban Growth

In Favour of Spontaneous Urban Growth

Todor Kesarovski

“A regeneration strategy for a sustainable urban transformation in Turin, Italy”

In the last decades the global economic restructuring has increased even more the pace of the urbanization and created new preconditions for essential urban transformations. The process of massive deindustrialization has led to serious reconsideration in regards to the physical structure and utilisation of the inner-urban space. Cities have been forced to work hard seeking for new spatial formations and opportunities allowing them to facilitate further economic growth within the post-industrial context (Couch & Fraser, 2003). The numerous urban regeneration projects have certainly brought an improvement of the urban quality of life, economic and environmental prosperity but today we have reached a stage, especially in the Western World, when there is neither an available financial capital nor political urgency to support these developments. As a consequence considerable amount of physical fabric has been left under the label ‘to be redeveloped’ for a decade or two abiding as spatial voids within urban areas. This argument implies a certain notion that the existing approaches towards urban regeneration do not seem to fundamentally successful means for achieving sustainable urban development in the modern context. Therefore, this graduation project addresses the urgent necessity for formulating new, highly flexible modes of urban transformations. It is both a research vehicle and design laboratory aiming to seek for an innovative urban regeneration approach relying on morphogenesis approach, spontaneous urban growth and temporary land-uses. The objective is to understand the qualities of the spontaneous urban growth, operationalise them and develop an experimental design project within the context of Turin. The ambition is to achieve this urban redevelopment with strategic and temporary urban design interventions rather than part of a large urban development project. The final products of this graduation project will be: (a) development planning strategy and (b) temporary masterplan. The execution of this thesis aims to provide a better understanding regarding the issue of spontaneous urban growth, develop an applicable design method based on the concept and reflect on the results of this experiment in order to deliver a valuable knowledge in the field of urban regeneration and design.

Evolutionary Resilience: An approach to in-situ slum upgrading in post disaster communities

Evolutionary Resilience: An approach to in-situ slum upgrading in post disaster communities

Anne-Sophie van der Spek

Most projects within the architecture curriculum prepares its students to work for wealthy clients leading to the design of a private studio, the expansion of a faculty or the design of a museum of contemporary art, to name a few. Today, the economic recession has ensured “there is much less meat for the same amount of animals” (Timberg, 2012). After a rather costly study of the profession, recent graduates are forced to accept whatever comes their path to “full-time employment with internship wages” (Timberg, 2012). There has been a significant decline observed in job opportunities in most architecture firms. “Non-traditional job opportunities for architects have never been better and we should see the decline of traditional jobs not as a “meltdown” (Timberg, 2012) of architecture, but as the beginning of its rebirth” (Fisher, 2012). I have been looking at the concept of Evolutionary resilience as a plausible approach to in-situ settlement upgrading processes. My pilot case for this approach is the post disaster informal settlement in Valparaiso, Chile, where I have designed new public space with a children day care centre.

Thomas Steigenga

Clara Jansen
Housing in the historic centre of Haarlem

Housing in the historic centre of Haarlem

Luuk Dietz

The project started with a research on roman patio houses and apartment blocks and the use of architectural design tools. These tools, such as routing, sequencing of spaces and the use of water and green, could then be used in the design for housing in a city block in Haarlem. On the remains of existing building structures, a set of dwellings are placed around three courtyards. These communal spaces are designed to feel as a collective environment.In the design of the different dwelling types, two themes were central. The houses all have a twofold program, with a public and a more private part. The border between inside and outside is stretched and spread over multiple spaces. Both themes can be traced back in the tectonics and detailing of the buildings.

HomeLessentials

Janine Toussainte

Virtual; the Reality of Cyberspace;
not idealising the virtual but use it as a platform for efficient communication and informationTime; the Duration of space;

embracing the local, generating more value for the global

Place; the feeling of Space;
creating conditions for a ‘feeling of home’ instead of designing a house

With these principals in mind an urban plan and a building design were created.
“On an urban and building scale I choose to design moments in space more than the spaces themselves. Along a timeline there are created-moments. Together they form a rhythm and by their own specific characters they transform into a melody. The moments are places to meet. Meeting between people of different cultures, between nomads and freebooters, between local inhabitants and tourists, between passengers and stayers, between artists and businesspeople, between… They are places that mostly have their qualities on a local scale and therefor can be of a special quality on a much bigger level. They embrace the local and strengthen the value of the city in global network. Maybe they are not the places that are represented on a postcard, but they are the places where you sit down and write a story on them, the places where you experience the story. They are indeed places where you can feel at home without a house”

Holistic hospital design

Holistic hospital design

Daniel de Witte

To fit a new regional hospital in the physical, social and economic context of Northern Ethiopia a design has been made from a holistic approach. The patient, mostly from a very poor background, is the center of the design approach. With various architectonic means a ‘Healing Environment is created.

A combination of modern and indigenous architecture, shapes and materials ensure social-cultural embedment and sustainable development. As example: the in concrete realized inpatient zone functions as roof for the outpatient zone which is thought of in the traditional adobe. To control indoor climate naturally, use have been made of centuries old building methods which are implemented in the architecture. In this way reducing the carbon footprint is realized by using context related solutions.

By making a realistic but at the same time contemporary design the hope is to contribute to the hard living circumstances for the poorest of the poor in this part of Ethiopia.

The Architecture of Pleasure : a new recreational pier for Scheveningen

The Architecture of Pleasure : a new recreational pier for Scheveningen

Robin van Zeeland

Scheveningen, the largest seaside resort in the Netherlands, is currently slipping into a phase of decline and possibly decay. Scheveningen’s pier, also one of few of the nation’s landmarks, is representative of this. The pier, which opened in 1961, designed by the Dutch architect Hugh Maaskant, was closed in October of 2013 due to the unsafe state of the pier deck and islands. As program of pleasure is no longer profitable at the seaside resort, owners are having trouble to cope with maintenance costs, resulting in a poor and unsafe built environment. A seaside resort once so glorious is now struggling.

Fairtransport Wharf: the tolerance for change in listed monuments

Fairtransport Wharf: the tolerance for change in listed monuments

Thijs Bennebroek

Defining the tolerance for change in listed monuments with the redevelopment of a 17th-century Warehouse in Harlingen, The Netherlands.

Listed monuments are buildings we ought to preserve. However, more and more monuments lose their functions and become vacant. So in order to preserve our buildings nowadays, reuse is necessary.

Reuse demands change, which conflicts with the idea of preservation. So how do these two tolerate each other? In my project the tolerance for change in listed monuments is defined by different theories and instruments. These can be used as a method for communication between different stakeholders acting on the reuse of a listed monument.

The theories and instruments are developed and tested with a single object, a Warehouse in Harlingen, The Netherlands, dating from 1657 and owned by Vereniging Hendrick de Keyser since 1930. This very deep building, with a strange plan of 7 by 42 m is located in the historical centre between a harbour and an alley. With the results of the research, a redesign for this warehouse into a wharf for the Fairtransport Shipping Company is made. They will use the building for storage, store, workshop and dwellings, while mooring their ships in front of the building.

Mafundi EXPO

Mafundi EXPO

Frank Reitsma

Rapid urbanisation is a pressing issue in the global south, bringing forth the challenges of informal urbanisation that proliferates when the state is unable to produce adequate and affordable living conditions for the expanding urban population. [Under informal urbanisation problems arise in terms of inadequate access to water, sanitation, living space, durable shelter and security of tenure]. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is being confronted by these processes, the city currently comprises of an estimated 4,5 million inhabitants of whom 80% live in informal, under serviced and unplanned settlements. Government has not been able to provide the institutional and infrastructural frameworks for inclusive growth. This thesis aims to investigate the phenomenon of informal urbanisation in Dar es Salaam in order to formulate a housing policy beneficial to the substandard housing conditions in the unplanned and under serviced settlements. Three theoretical frameworks are therefore presented; firstly determining the root causes of the unplanned and under serviced areas in Dar es Salaam to come into existence, secondly reflecting on a housing policy overview towards to the unplanned and under serviced settlements in Dar es Salaam, and thirdly theorising the ethical considerations when proposing a housing policy for the situation. The constraints drawn from the frameworks, guide the formulation of a housing policy integrated within current local government policy and the international aid agenda. The strategy presented negotiates the tradeoffs between the collective interest and the individuals right to the city, by targeting the informal construction professionals, mafundi, to mitigate top down control and the bottom up reach. The targeted mafundi, uneducated and not formally organised, are enabled with technical tools and knowledge on constructing a redesigned affordable housing typology in line with the collective interest. Democratic distribution of knowledge on improving current informal building practice, with technology, materials and typologies is proposed in an Expo that makes explicit in full scale new scenario’s for the process of housing. The proposal is situated within the government, Cities Alliance and UN Habitats’ ‘Action Plan for Upgrading Unplanned and Under serviced Settlements in Dar es Salaam’ in which there are funds available for the capacity building of local artisans in housing construction. The informal construction professional is proposed to build the link between a government of little means, and an inadequately housed rapidly growing public. Presenting a hypothesis for housing policy that aligns to the mutual benefit of both government, mafundi and inhabitants, as a viable contribution to the improvement of the substandard living conditions in the settlements of Dar es Salaam.

Youval Kuipers

Vincent Marchetto

Vera Vorderegger
Stephan van Berkel’s Project

Stephan van Berkel’s Project

Stephan van Berkel

Project Description

Sanne de Vries’ Project

Sanne de Vries’ Project

Sanne de Vries

Project Description

Robbert Verheij’s Project

Robbert Verheij

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Priscilla Uncu’s Project

Priscilla Uncu

Project Description

Orsolya Matyus’ Project

Orsolya Matyus’ Project

Orsolya Matyus

Project Description

Oguzhan Atrek’s Project

Oguzhan Atrek’s Project

Oguzhan Atrek

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Niek Koning’s Project

Niek Koning’s Project

Niek Koning

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Matteo Ferrarese’s Project

Matteo Ferrarese’s Project

Matteo Ferrarese

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Het stenen hoofd

Het stenen hoofd

Anthony Slothouber

The first  in the Netherlands was build in 1913, long before the official legalization of cremation (1955). Today, the Netherlands hold 72 crematoria.
Almost all crematoria build in the Netherlands are situated outside the borders of the city it belongs to, having lost the connection with its city. In an era of urbanisation, cities grow stronger and the relation between the individual and the city too. For some people the city has become an inextricably part of their life. Being such an important element, this relation with the city should therefore not be evaded, but it should be embraced, even in the parting. I therefore plea for a crematorium not outside of the city, not inside the city, but a crematorium óf the city. ‘Het Stenen Hoofd’ is a crematorium in the heart of the city of Amsterdam, placed in the river ‘t IJ next to an outstretched vacant lot. Originating from the end of the 19th century, this place breaths out memories. Isolated by water of constant movement, it has become a place for remembrance. Strengthened by remembrance, the place for mourning is set in the water. Like a memorial stone it appears to rise from the water and emphasizes the movement towards the sky. The building reaches a height of 126 meters and consists of a parking space, an entrance hall, a columbarium and a crematorium, located on the upper levels. Reaching for the top, the sounds dominating the ground floor gradually exchange their life for an environment in which peace is undisturbed. Standing high above ground, the green peripheral view is now an urban view over the city that extends towards the horizon.

Maria Alexandrescu’s Project

Maria Alexandrescu’s Project

Maria Alexandrescu

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Lianne Klitsie’s Project

Lianne Klitsie’s Project

Lianne Klitsie

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Laura Linsi’s Project

Laura Linsi

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Kristyna Lhotkova’s Project

Kristyna Lhotkova

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Kristen van Haeren’s Project

Kristen van Haeren

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Koen Kegel’s Project

Koen Kegel

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Ioana Ailincai’s Project

Ioana Ailincai

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Practicing critical architecture

Practicing critical architecture

Ian Chaplin

Architectural research and practice curate a constant production of different methods and techniques so as to make architectural action seem more appropriate. These conceptual platforms create the possibility for an architect to operate. Its meta-theoretical axioms and its specific reasoning for its creation are nonetheless easily forgotten in light of its representation; the produced artefact. The operations using these platforms gets performed again and again. In practice I have almost without exception observed its axioms being perceived and operated with, as truths and the platforms being seen as a necessary instigator of what can only be described as the representation of a creative process, within a manageable process.

As to cope with a wanting to be more objective I recognize a tendency to isolate concepts and percepts which have only unveiled themselves because of their operational/cultural merits. From post-humanastic philosophy of Nietzsche, Heidegger and Sloterdijk I research a possibility as to distinguish the artefact from the genealogy of its model as to create my personal capabilities to mutate the model in a way that sustains the causality of its unveiling but relates to other actors, so as to practice critically within a system of standardization towards a more open practice.

Dina Dönch’s Project

Dina Dönch’s Project

Dina Dönch

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Dieuwer Duijf’s Project

Dieuwer Duijf’s Project

Dieuwer Duijf

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Deniz Uygur’s Project

Deniz Uygur’s Project

Deniz Uygur

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Davoud Sultani’s Project

Davoud Sultani

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Cosimo Conserva’s Project

Cosimo Conserva’s Project

Cosimo Conserva

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Charlotte Grace’s Project

Charlotte Grace’s Project

Charlotte Grace

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Anton Zoetmulder’s Project

Anton Zoetmulder

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Antje Roos Adriaens’ Project

Antje Roos Adriaens

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Anna Topolnicka’s Project

Anna Topolnicka’s Project

Anna Topolnicka

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Anezka Prokopova’s Project

Anezka Prokopova’s Project

Anezka Prokopova

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Aman Habtemariam’s Project

Aman Habtemariam

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Alex Parvu’s Project

Alex Parvu

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Alaa Al Temimi’s Project

Alaa Al Temimi’s Project

Alaa Al Temimi

Project Description

Mattia Tintori’s Project

Mattia Tintori’s Project

Mattia Tintori

Project Description

The role of the architect in collective private commission projects in the Netherlands

The role of the architect in collective private commission projects in the Netherlands

Tessa Smit

Collective Private Commission, a term used for groups of citizens who develop their own housing together, is an growing building trend in society. However, lack of research and experience makes it hard for architects to develop a clear vision on how to involve residents in their design process.

The research concludes that architects need to a) really listen to people, to integrate what is essential to them in the design, b) guard the groups priorities through the design process and c) acknowledge themselves as experts: create strong architecture. The architect and future residents need to treat each other as ‘partners’, but with different expertise.
To enable this partnership to work, investigation is done after a shared language to make design understandable for non-architects. The chosen method translated architectural solutions into understandable schemes and was tested in a given workshop.
The design phase is a constructed process of collective private commission, using a real group as example and extending the design assignment trough a vision on the role these projects should fulfill in the city. It uses as input a) a location analysis b) results from the workshop given and c) information from the target groups.
The result is the design of approximately 70 dwellings for different target groups within a strong architectural lay-out, around a central garden which contains community facilities. The architects role is to create an inspiring environment, in which the residents have freedom to adjust their homes and communal spaces to their wishes.

Helping slum dwellers to get a better life

Helping slum dwellers to get a better life

Kenzo Oijevaar

Many people are living in an urban environment with inadequate access to water, sanitation and other infrastructure. One reason for this is the worldwide urbanization where poor people end up in cities without sufficient good quality living space.This project focuses on gaining an understanding how an architect can help to achieve the best quality of life for all the slum dwellers in one slum within reasonable possibilities and achieving this on the same site. As a location Bangalore in India is chosen. The result is a plan that leads to an improved quality of life for the slum dwellers. Phase one of the plan consists of steps that lead the slum dwellers to some income. This is done by forming a community consisting of the slum dwellers and getting the community to start an enterprise.In phase two the dividend of the enterprise is used to improve parts of the slum. The more money is made, the more investments can be done. Special workshops teach the community how to build these improvements themselves. This approach also guarantees cheap, safe and environmentally friendly building techniques. Improvements could start with a toilet and could end with a four-story building.
Phase three consists of access to infrastructures that will improve the life of the slum dwellers. Examples are access to schools, a recognized building plot or the possibility to vote.

The architect hereby becomes a person for guidance, who helps the slum dwellers in following the plan. And who, in the end, helps the slum dwellers in gaining a higher quality of life.

Healthcare architecture: Design for a diabetesclinic in Rotterdam-Zuid

Healthcare architecture: Design for a diabetesclinic in Rotterdam-Zuid

Joris de Leeuw

The design project for a small community based clinic was based on an extensive research into the principles of the Healing Environment, with a more specific focus on the concept of Social Support. This psychological theory suggests the benefits of parts of our environment in the recovery from illness, in this case the stress reducing abilities of the social network of patients. The research resulted in a set of principles which have been applied in the design on multiple scales; from the urban interception, by which the clinic not only becomes part of the city’s fabric but also enhances the social and spatial cohesion, until the most intimate part of the patient’s perception, the patientroom where concepts as privacy, territory and personal space are of importance.
The social support principles formed the main part in the program of requirements for the design, complemented by a study into possible syndromes or diseases which would be suitable for the small, elective clinic and a field research into the specific problems and needs of the district, a deprived area in the suburbs of Rotterdam. This resulted in a cross-district, multifunctional program with, on the one hand, specific functions for diabetes patient from the entire city, and, on the other hand, local functions aimed at primary care, prevention, welfare, youth care, wellness and commercial exploits.
The building gives a boost to the impoverished environment of the subway station and attracts the public within through an internal street (‘care boulevard’). The roofed courtyards enhance the healing environment and are part of the energetic concept. The easy-to-read and coherent floor layout supports wayfinding. Different layers of privacy can be found, from a more public setting on the lower levels and the internal street, to a more private setting in the patient floors on the upper levels. The detailing of the ground floor façade provides an interaction with the surroundings, with meshed screens which can be raised according to the wanted level.

Forensic psychiatric care: A new FPC in Brugge

Forensic psychiatric care: A new FPC in Brugge

Elke Miedema

How can architecture and the build environment contribute to the treatment process of criminals with severe psychiatric disorders?
Patients who are a danger to themselves and society, unstable and aggressive need to learn how to live with their disability within a highly secured facility. For the treatment to work the patients need to feel safe and stable.
The forensic psychiatric centre in Brugge houses 166 patients, living in housing blocks connected by lowered walls that enclose the treatment facilities. There are 4 types of housing departments fit to the different needs of patients for the mind-sets they need.
The stabilization department is minimal, individual, without distractions, and highly secured. The motivation department is more flexible to take away stimuli when needed but still high security levels. The treatment departments have a higher grade of privacy and flexibility to give the patient more freedom and the staff means to negotiate with. The re-habilitation department is minimally secured with a studio like room and a balcony on the street side.
Research on their psychiatric disorder, but also on healing environments, evidence based design and environmental psychology combined creates a safer and more homely environment for patient as well as staff. A view on nature, levels of privacy, control, autonomy, safety and clarity in the design where adapted to the needs of the patients and their place in the treatment process.
The result is a miniature society where the patients and staff can test if the patients are able to return to society.

Education center to increase cohesion

Education center to increase cohesion

Daphne Nederstigt

In the slums of Rio de Janeiro almost 20% of the residents gets caught up in the enormous drug scene, ruling the slums of Rio. Educational and recreational programs are required to help residents to process traumas, develop themselves and keep away from the violence. An education center consists of a combination of various functions, with at least one educational activity. Children and adults participate in activities; they develop their skills to increase hope for a better future and start rebuilding their dreams. Education centers also facilitate social interaction which increases cohesion between the residents.In this project a guidebook is developed. This guidebook is useful for residents who plan to build an education center. It guides people through the design process and advices them about the influence of functions like a library, required supporting functions like bathrooms and constructional aspects like natural ventilation. Also a game is developed to teach people in a playful way to deal with a design process. To validate the guidebook and support it with an example one education center is designed.

Ecologisch Campus

Ecologisch Campus

Frank van Schadewijk

Het Ecologische Campus Centrum is een nieuw gebouw van de TU Delft dat ruimte biedt aan studenten van alle faculteiten voor zelfstudie en lezingen in een gezonde, natuurlijke omgeving. In het ontwerp is gestreefd naar een succesvolle combinatie van een hoge bebouwingsdichtheid met een grote ecologische waarde voor de directe omgeving. Door op alle schaalniveaus in te zetten op een grote verscheidenheid aan ecologisch waardevolle flora en fauna ontstaat niet alleen een duurzaam, maar ook zeer aangenaam leefklimaat. De getrapte promenade functioneert als een groene ader die alle verdiepingen met het Mekelpark verbindt. De gevels bieden ruimte aan een grote verscheidenheid aan grassen, kruiden en diverse vogelsoorten. Op de begane grond, langs het nieuwe wetland, bevinden zich verschillende insectenhotels. Centraal in het gebouw staan een drietal cocons die essentieel zijn voor de natuurlijke ventilatie en de goede akoestiek in het gebouw. Studeren en ontspannen midden in een inspirerende, natuurlijke omgeving!

Dynamic Landscape

Dynamic Landscape

Jetze Schreij

Due to climate change a restructuring of the Dutch river landscape is taking place. Dikes will be raised, riverbeds will get broader and water-meadows will be dug out. All this is happening to offer more space to the river.

To make the dikes more accessible for maintenance and raising, dike houses are being demolished. New dwellings in the river area avoid the dike and often loose the relationship with the river. Due to this process a characteristic piece of Dutch culture is threatened to disappear.

One of the problem areas which is being mapped by the Dutch government is the curve of the river Waal in the area of Nijmegen. The slim riverbed causes the river to raise upstream and to flood the banks of Lent and the city of Nijmegen.

The concept of my graduation project is to artificially reconstruct the part of the Bemmelse dike (by a bridge construction) and to offer again a connection between the river landscape and its residents by attaching houses to the new bridge construction which reverts to the typologies of the old dike houses.
The construction of the river bypass will involve the construction of a threshold over which the river water will run once the river reaches a certain water level. The threshold will be designed in such a way that the current water level will become readable making not only the residents but also the people passing by and the recreational people aware of the dynamic river.

Dutch National History Museum

Dutch National History Museum

Ruben Molendijk

At the beginning of the previous decade, debates had been taking place on the need for -and relevance of- a new national history museum. The Netherlands have a number of well-regarded history museums, but none of them gives a complete picture of Dutch history.
In a time of mounting complaints about the level of historic awareness among the public, a new museum increasingly seemed like a possible antidote. At the same time, a stronger focus on the nation’s past would serve, at least according to some prominent politicians, to strengthen the ‘national identity’, whatever that may be.
Located at the ‘Kop van Java’, Amsterdam, this project proposes just such a museum. The Canon of Dutch history –the 50 ‘windows’ on the past- forms the conceptual basis of the design. However, instead of treating the Canon as simply a linear story, it is here re-imagined as a collection of loose strands, a jumble of events and trends that can coalesce in ever new ways. By cutting the Canon in small strings or threads and mixing them up, new arrangements can be devised time and again. The ‘threads’ are translated into six galleries, twisting and turning around each other, allowing the visitors to literally see from one epoch to another and opening up new and unexpected connections between strands of history.
In this way Walter Benjamin’s view on history and historiography -that different epochs are not just linked in a linear fashion, but also via themes and experiences- is given an architectural expression.

Developing low-income urban areas

Developing low-income urban areas

Toon Stallaart

Rio de Janeiro’s urbanization developed in two directions. The prosperous neighborhoods along the beaches and in the center followed the rails of the tram lines, while the peripheral zones of the working classes to the north emerged along the railroads. Public facilities, such as libraries and parks, were continuously planned in the city center. The public voids left in the peripheries were filled up by private institutions such as shopping malls. Green space is scarce in the vast outskirts. A space that has remained open is the network of transmission lines. It reaches many residents in the dense peripheries in the north zone, but the space is currently inaccessible. The space can be transformed into a linear park, equipped with public facilities. Public interventions, such as plazas and sports fields are planned on the strip. Vacant spaces along the strip are used for buildings, in particular with public functions. In this project I proposed a design for a building with several public functions: a library, an auditorium, and a bus station. In the commercial heart of Madureira, an area dominated by commercial activities, the building will be a haven of public space that surpasses the interest of the neighborhood. Through connectivity, function and size, the building will be significant for the entire periphery of the city.

Designing without  limitations

Designing without limitations

Steven Surentu

Citizenship paradigm has changed the role of the person with intellectual disabilities in our society. To make living in the quarters amongst normal people to a succes, in addition to practical issues such as accessibility and visibility, man must also concentrate on encouraging mutual acceptance. Several parties were approached for the quality research to obtain information about the target group. The municipality, the housing corporation, the healthcare provider, a counselor and parents were approached to gather information on different points of view.
Out of the various sub-studies a set of requirements is extracted, which indicates that the design must satisfy the potential occupant so they will not reject. A time-use study was designed to see whether there are similarities in activities between people ‘with’ and people ‘without’ disabilities.Based on the urban study the preference for the location was given to a district where the project has the best chance to succeed. Based on the data provided by the municipality of Dordrecht it became the agricultural quarter Dubbeldam.

Through the formation of the buildings the site contains two squares, each with it’s own identity: a public and a common one. The houses are designed as detached housing to the existing environment. One of the important items among people with intellectual disability. They strongly prefer property without the traditional institutional appearance . Therefore the image of a large-scale housing block had been deliberately avoided. In order to prevent stigmatization mixed program was wished. Thus four dwellings on the site designed for people without disabilities and a vegetable shop, a lunchroom and a workshoproom were added.

Chitakale community centre

Chitakale community centre

Lot Bakker

Once long ago I had a dream, to go to Africa as a dentist and help the people.
But how can an architect help in Africa? I learned people don’t need buildings to be given to them, they only might need some knowledge if they please so.
But then what? You have to have a design to be able to finish your studies.
I decided to pick a place, go there and find out what would be a wanted building design. In the small village Chitakale Trade Centre near Mulanje Mountain, Malawi, I did interviews, observations and a workshop with schoolchildren. I came to a design that supported both what was strongest already in the village, the trade, and what was wished for most, vocational training.
A market hall with possibilities for several levels of trade is combined with a training centre with classrooms, lecture spaces and workshops. In between a passive and an active connection is designed; a large pond just to sit at and stare to the other side, and next to it a cinema annex theatre.
The complex is like a stage to it’s users, a concrete flap with small buildings on it as it’s decor, expandable if the users please. The thatched roofs reintroduces a technique that is almost forgotten. Beams and columns are made of the non-indigenous pine trees, and water is filtered and collected under the pond in the middle. In years to come the now plane white walls will undoubtedly get many colourful, cheery paintings of cell phones and bottles of coke.

Building with material shortage in areas with extreme circumstances

Building with material shortage in areas with extreme circumstances

Wouter Perry

The aim of this project was to redesign the three huts on the Sirimontrack. The Sirimontrack is one of the most used routes on Mount Kenya. It leads tourists and porters from Sirimon Gate (close to Nanyuki) to Old Moses Camp (3400m), Liki North (3993m) and Shiptons Camp (4326m) to Point Lenana (4985m). From this point it is possible the climb the top of Mount Kenya, Batian (5199m).

The simple form of the huts with their sharp lines forms a large contrast with the complexity of the landscape. This contrast lets the shape speak out. The used materials dovetail its surroundings, the re-used cedar wood beams become gray under the influence of sun and rain. They form themselves to the landscape. Within the hut you feel the warmth: letting in the sun through the roof window during the day. Holding the warmth in the clay walls, and giving off this heat to the people in the hut during the night. The warmth of the cedar wood that inside does not turn gray contributes to the perception of the comfortable inner climate. A contrast I tried to moderate is the one between the porter and the tourist. By means of equivalence within the hut the porter will work under better circumstances.

Building towards community / African vernacular architecture

Building towards community / African vernacular architecture

Michiel Smits

Due to my involvement on Mount Elgon the past 2.5 years I decided to conduct an inquiry into the problem of the current projects. During 5 years, locally operating organizations in collaboration with the owner, realised several projects. After I became involved as a consultant, I noticed that most projects were being realised without contributions from the local inhabitants, nether were they adapted to the local building traditions. This is partly due to the fact that the inhabitants of the region remain dependent on externally initiated projects. This keeps the population dependent on the west and this does not yield a sustainable solution, particularly in the longer term.
By conducting a research locally for half a year and by talking with residents and developers, I had a solid foundation for my thesis. The conclusions, in particular the development guidelines set out herein, were integrated into this new habitat. The main objective of this project was, for the people themselves to develop the projects and for the organizations to merely have a supervisory role in this process.Client: Mount Elgon Orchards & Back2africa

size:
– 18 acres
– 7 communities
– 100 households
– 1000/1500 inhabitants

Breaking the dichotomy: The Medellín case

Breaking the dichotomy: The Medellín case

Joost de Bont

The project takes two main issues as a starting point: insufficient food supply to the urban (informal) periphery and the (theoretical) dichotomy between the formal and the informal city. Hereby it starts at the foundation in two ways. At first the foundation of the Maslow pyramid by addressing food security, translated into the programme (decentral food market and education) and the overall decentralizing urban strategy. At second by starting at the foundation with regards to the integration of the informal and formal. This by intervening in a location that can be found within the hybrid cityscape, in the space that is able to merge the two.

Bioclimatic water tower

Bioclimatic water tower

Piero Medici

The Bioclimatic water tower is a sustainable skyscraper collecting, cleaning and reusing rainwater. It was designed shaped and oriented after having take in account the wind-driven rain effect and after having modelled wind-driven rain fluxes. Orientation and shape is also studied to optimize the sun light exposition and energy production through wind turbines and PV cells.

Beyond routing

Beyond routing

Leonie Korting

Beyond Routing is the title of a unique dwelling project situated on ‘de Staart’ in Dordrecht. It shows that, with a new approach, diversity can be brought in the standardization of the Dutch dwelling typologies. Inspiration for this approach was the Japanese teahouse architecture. Important characteristics of this design for a residential area are qualities like frame construction, flexibility by means of sliding walls and doors as well as the used proportions, which all lead to a special experience and route.

Back to basics: Emotion-oriented design

Back to basics: Emotion-oriented design

Renske van Dieren

In 2050 half a million people in The Netherlands will have dementia. This is caused by an aging population. The project “Back to basics” focused on using architecture as a tool to aid people suffering from dementia. People with dementia suffer from loss of control. They experience both memory and behavioral problems. This leads to a loss of contact with both the social and physical environment which in turn lead to orientation problems. It’s the architect´s responsibility to design a physical environment for these people which supports their perception. It should also indirectly facilitate the social environment. To achieve this, the main tools used in this project are: recognition, wayfinding, zoning and sensory perception. These were used in four archetypes. The main properties of the archetypes are used as a starting point for designing the shape and material of the buildings The archetypes were tree-house, nest, hill and greenhouse. By using different forms and materials recognition is already facilitated on the highest level (recognizing the building). In the hallways, recognition blends with zoning by using different views combined with personal small ‘gardens’ in front of each person’s room. Wayfinding is also applied on two levels, the first being the urban level, and the second being within the building. Both use the principle of a ‘route architectural’. Sensory perception, especially touch has a special function in the design. Touch helps people with dementia to find their way and is literally used as a guideline from building to building.

Architecture of the production landscape

Architecture of the production landscape

Frans Bochanen

Sewage treatment plant | agriculture | brewery|

After reclamation of the Haarlemmermeer mid-19th century – for safety, employment and food production – the polder was a production landscape. Little has remained: a substantial part of the polder has been developed and the remaining agriculture land is under pressure, also as a result of the rising salty water.

The rising salt water is mainly a problem for agriculture: some crops have a low resistance to salt. Currently scarce freshwater from outside the polder is needed in dry periods to flush the polder water system. Due to the large surface of urban area, rain water cannot be buffered for dry periods. Part of the solution could be to use the purified waste water from this urban area for agriculture. The proposed design, located in the wedge formed by the Schiphol railway line and the high-speed line, consists of parts which are related to the water difficulties in the Haarlemmermeerpolder in various ways. Moreover, the nature of a production landscape is restored. Displaying the various processes as well to the fast passing train passengers as to cyclists is the main objective.

Municipal waste water is being purified in a water treatment plant and then used for agriculture. This reduces the need for freshwater. The agricultural products are used in the brewery cum café-restaurant, where the brewing process is made visible to the guests. This brewery functions as a care brewery, where mentally disabled can help with the structured brewing process and small scale farming.

Architecture in Music

Architecture in Music

Joran Kuijper

Music can be the base of the architectural design process and can yield architectural el- ements and idiom which will serve as the foundation of an architectural design. From literature about the interrelationship between music and architecture followed four prin- ciples, named the ‘connexion’ of which form studies follow. These form studies will be of use by analyzing three music pieces of which resulting models will form the base of the architectural design of a crematory in the polder of Flevoland. The crematory will provide the visitors and users with the experience to follow a cremation in its full process, even delivering the remains to the crematorium oven and taking back the ashes. Integration in the landscape of Flevoland is a very important part of the design. The crematory will be of a small and intimate scale.

Architecture & Nature: degrees of order

Architecture & Nature: degrees of order

Fabio Baldo

The basic idea of my research finds its own inspiration in the area where I grew up. The lake of Garda, situated in north of Italy between the Alps and the flat land, is famous and recognized for the beauty of its natural landscape mixed with rural fabrications.The harshness of the territory has been softened thanks to the construction of ground terraces. However, at the same time the natural features and materials provided by the territory, conditioned the development of a particular kind of vernacular and rural fabrications.My fascination takes place in this dualism between architecture and nature. What stands out in the interaction between man made fabrications and landscape is the organization of matter and of natural elements in different degrees of order which represents the transition from artificial to natural, from architecture to nature.

This transition, this range of interaction between the two sides becomes the main theme of the design that places its bases in this gap, working between the physical conditions of the site and their reinterpretation in a personal way.

Starting from the intangible aspect of space, its void, finding the balance with its opposite, matter, and filling it with light. Creating an image where the final result is just the representation of the process itself, where all the elements, such as zenithal light, matter, etc. participate together to create a structure, like in nature with an organism.

A new life for a small village church

A new life for a small village church

Eva Dubbelboer

During my graduation I focused on the re-use of small village churches. On the one hand I researched which new functions are suitable for little village churches in general. And on the other hand I investigated the reformed church in 2e Exloërmond (in the north of the Netherlands). In and around this church I designed a Thomashouse, a home for people with a mental handicap. I situated the home in the church with some new extensions and placed a separate building next to the church that contains a workshop where the people from the home can work and sell what they make.To give the church a new life I had to make an intervention in the church and I had to extend the church to fit all the new rooms that were needed. I choose to turn the church inside out. I removed the second half of the roof, creating an outdoor space inside the church. Around this space I placed new additions to the building. From inside these new additions you can look through the church windows (the most special elements of this church) into the garden inside the church. In this way the extensions also have the church-feeling of the original building.All new additions are designed regarding the relation with the church and the surroundings. The church is an landmark in the village that exists of one 6km long straight road. That’s why the view on the church and the new buildings when driving past played an important role in the design of the whole ensemble of buildings.

Making a fairbnb

Making a fairbnb

Alexander Mooi

My project consists of a strategy and a pilot design project on how to realise 
a fair B&B system within the Amsterdam city centre. A fairbnb is a socially and architecturally sustainable solution
, combining the demands of the locals and the tourists, offering a viable alternative through an architect initiated project, using tourism as a force for good, hopefully resulting in added value for society as a whole.  It offers affordable housing in combination with B&B facilities, incorporating facilities for both tourist and locals to enjoy, by letting the tourist pay for the affordable housing.